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TETRA Engineered Solutions Guide

25025 Interstate 45 North, Suite 600


The Woodlands, Texas 77380
281.367.1983
www.tetratec.com
Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and
Filtration, Second Edition
© 2004 and 2007 by TETRA Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval sys-
tem, or transmitted by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise—without written permission from TETRA Technologies, Inc.
First edition published 2004. Second edition published 2007.
Printed in the United States of America.

Trademarks
ActiVis, AdvanceClean, BioPol, CORSAF, CV-Pro, DIS-Pro, FerroBan, MatchWell, OxBan,
PseudoPol, SafeDEflo, TDSP, TETRAClean, TETRAHib, TETRAFlex, TETRAVis, and TP-Pro are
trademarks of TETRA Technologies, Inc. TETRA, the TETRA logo, EXPRESS, and PayZone
are registered trademarks of TETRA Technologies, Inc.
Celatom is a registered trademark of EaglePicher, Inc. Hydril is a registered trademark of
Hydril Company.

Warning and Disclaimer


The information presented herein is believed by TETRA Technologies, Inc. to be accurate.
However, no representations are made concerning this information to any user and none
shall be implied. Under no circumstances shall TETRA Technologies, Inc. or its responsible
personnel be liable for any damages, including without limitation any special, incidental,
or consequential damages, which may be claimed to have resulted from the use of any
information contained herein.

Contributors
The following team members participated in the creation of this guide and we want to
acknowledge their contributions and thank them for their efforts.
Chris Atkinson Dennis L. Howe Michael Shaw
Charlie Barton Don Kehlenbeck Larry Sims
Thomas S. Carter Kurt Landry Roosevelt Smith
Joey Detiveaux Jeffrey McKennis Edward D. Stegall
Weyman Dunaway Suren Mishra Mike Stephens
Russell Fisher Aaron Morse Stephen W. Stroh
Judy Franklin Joe Murphey Duane Sutherland
Joe Free David Odum Rosa Swartwout
Cheryl Frey Wayne Peddy Ray Talabi
Judy Guy-Caffey Richard Perkins Ric Termine
Steve Hardwick Hank Reeves Don Walters
Allen Hayes, Jr. Rob Richie Loren E. Worley
Bernard Hester Ashley Saltzer

Production Editor: Stephanie Wiegand


Technical Editor: Russell Fisher, Strategic Market Management
I

Contents

CHAPTER 1 Introduction
Why We Wrote this Guide ......................................................................2
Use of Icons ............................................................................................2
Contact Information .................................................................................3

CHAPTER 2 Fluid Planning: Fluid Selection


Safety and the Environment .....................................................................5
The Planning Process ........................................................................... 8
Design Rationale .....................................................................................8
Planning for Wells Requiring Corrosion Resistant Alloys .............................9
Fluid Categories ................................................................................... 10
Fluid Density ........................................................................................ 11
General Fluid Density Ranges ................................................................14
Density Ranges .....................................................................................15
Crystallization Temperature ................................................................... 15
Temperature Considerations ...................................................................16
Seasonal Effects and Brine Selection .......................................................17
Pressure Considerations—Pressurized Crystallization Temperature ............17
Temperature and Pressure Effects ........................................................... 18
Estimating Required Fluid Volume .......................................................... 22
Calculating Volume Requirements ...........................................................22
Permeability and Pressure Conditions in a Producing Zone ......................26
Distance to the Supply Point ...................................................................27
Volume Calculation Worksheet ...............................................................27
Fluid Compatibility ............................................................................ 28
Mineralogy ..........................................................................................28
Reservoir Fluid Chemistry ......................................................................28
Metallurgy and Elastomers .....................................................................28
Specialty Formulated Brines and Engineered Fluid Systems ......................29
Reasons to Consider a Specialty Fluid ....................................................29

CHAPTER 3 Fluid Planning: Processes and Systems


Maintenance of Clear Brine Fluid Properties .......................................... 35
Corrosion Control ................................................................................ 40
Displacement ..................................................................................... 46
Fluid Loss Control ................................................................................. 50
Filtration and Brine Clarity .................................................................... 53

CHAPTER 4 Field Applications and Brine Maintenance


General Density Equations .................................................................... 59
Mixing Two Known Fluids—Unknown Final Density ................................60
Mixing Two Known Fluids—Known Final Density ....................................61

www.tetratec.com
II

Kill Weight Fluids ................................................................................. 63


Weight Up of Working Fluid with Spike Fluid ......................................... 63
Surface Density Correction .................................................................... 65
Brine Volume Calculations ..................................................................... 67
Maximum Volume of a Specific Density ................................................. 67
Weight Up of Single Salt Brine with Dry Chemicals ................................ 68
Weight Up Tables ................................................................................. 69
Dry Salt Weight Up Volume Increase ..................................................... 70
Cutback Calculations ............................................................................ 71
Cutback Tables .................................................................................... 72
Mixing Viscosified Pills .......................................................................... 74
Determining Product Type ..................................................................... 75
Brine Type ........................................................................................... 75
TETRAVis L Plus Curves ......................................................................... 78
Blending Equipment ............................................................................. 88
Spotting Balanced Pills .......................................................................... 88
Slug Calculations ................................................................................. 91

CHAPTER 5 Product Quick Reference


Clear Brine Fluids ................................................................................. 98
Single Salt Fluids .................................................................................. 98
Multisalt Fluids ..................................................................................... 99
Stock, Custom, and Specialty Fluids ....................................................... 99
Fluids Specially Blended to Control Fluid Loss ....................................... 100
Breaker Technology ............................................................................ 101
Bridging Agents .................................................................................101
Microfiber Bridging Agents ................................................................. 101
Calcium Carbonate Bridging Agents ...................................................102
Sized Salt Bridging Agents ................................................................. 102
Corrosion Control Additives ................................................................103
Dry Salt Weight Material ....................................................................104
Formation Protection Additives ............................................................105
pH Control and Buffering Agents .........................................................106
Rheological and Filtrate Control Products ............................................. 107
Filtration Products ............................................................................... 109
Filtration Equipment ............................................................................ 109
Filtration Consumables ........................................................................ 110
Chemical Displacement Products .........................................................111
Specialized Rental Equipment .............................................................112
Specialty Wellbore Cleanup Tools ....................................................... 113

CHAPTER 6 Tables, Formulas, and Planning Support


Units of Measurement .........................................................................119
Common Minerals and Metals ............................................................120
Useful Conversion Factors ...................................................................121
Useful Formulas .................................................................................. 124
Capacity Tables .................................................................................129

www.tetratec.com TETRA Technologies, Inc.


III

Annular Velocity ................................................................................. 144


Single Salt Fluid Composition and Blending Tables ............................... 145

CHAPTER 7 U.S. Safety and Environmental Information


CBF Chemical Constituents ................................................................. 167
Brine Handling and Personal Safety .................................................... 168
Handling of Clear Brine Fluids ............................................................ 169
Safety Equipment ............................................................................... 170
Recommendations for Immediate Treatment ......................................... 171
Environmental Considerations: Brine Handling and Disposal ................. 171
Hazardous Substances ....................................................................... 171
Discharges ........................................................................................ 172
Permitted Discharges .......................................................................... 172
Releases ............................................................................................ 173
Reportable Quantities (RQs) ................................................................ 173
Releases to the Environment and Notification Requirements ................... 175
Agency Contact Information ............................................................... 176

CHAPTER 8 Special Topics


Crystallization Temperature ................................................................. 181
Formulation and Specification of Crystallization Temperature ................ 183
Pressurized Crystallization Temperature ............................................... 184
Corrosion Control .............................................................................. 185
Corrosion Overview ........................................................................... 185
Major Types of Corrosion ................................................................... 187
Displacement ..................................................................................... 193
Displacement Methods ....................................................................... 194
Chemical Displacement Systems ......................................................... 195
Displacement Modeling Software ........................................................ 198
Condition of Surface Equipment .......................................................... 198
Predisplacement Condition of Mud ...................................................... 199
Condition of Flowpath ........................................................................ 199
Pressure Differentials ........................................................................... 200
Factors Influencing Displacement Efficiency .......................................... 200
Reduction of Fluid Loss ........................................................................ 203
Fluid Loss Strategies ............................................................................ 204
Filtration ............................................................................................ 205
Filtration Equipment Sizing .................................................................. 206
Filtration Theory ................................................................................. 209
Brine Filtration .................................................................................... 212
Rig Practices and Filtration Performance .............................................. 215
Clarity ............................................................................................... 216
Clarity Problems—Contaminants and the Formation of Solids ................ 217
Miscellaneous Contaminants ............................................................... 217
Formation of Solids ............................................................................ 219
Conclusion ........................................................................................ 219

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Volume 2
IV

CHAPTER 9 References
References ......................................................................................... 223

CHAPTER 10 Useful Lists


List of Tables .......................................................................................225
List of Figures .....................................................................................226
List of Symbols Used in Equations ........................................................ 227

www.tetratec.com TETRA Technologies, Inc.


1

CHAPTER 1 Introduction

TETRA Technologies, Inc. was a pioneer in the use of clear brine fluids
for well completions, workovers, and drilling operations, and the Com-
pany has continued to be an innovator in the industry. For more than
two decades, TETRA has worked to develop new and more technically
advanced products to meet the ever-changing needs of our customers.
All segments of our fluids operation—from manufacturing the base
products to technical planning and support—work in concert to provide
an integrated solution for our energy industry customers.

Engineering Services Filtration

TETRA’s Integrated
Package of Fluids Wellbore Cleanup
Technical Support
Products and Products and Services
Services

Clear Brine Fluids


Engineered Fluid Systems
and Products

Brominated Products Calcium Chloride


Manufacturing Manufacturing

Our 26,000-square-foot technology center has state-of-the-art research


and testing equipment and is manned by technologists and Ph.D. chem-
ists who have developed and supported many new innovations in oilfield
well completions. Focused on solving industry-related issues, TETRA
keeps abreast of oilfield trends and strives to design products and tech-
niques aimed at solving emerging problems such as environmentally
assisted cracking (EAC) of chrome production tubing in high pressure,
high temperature (HPHT) wells. Extensive and innovative research in this

www.tetratec.com
2
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

area, as well as that related to other production challenges such as fluid


loss and production impairment, is ongoing.

In addition to innovative product development, the technology center


personnel support our field engineers and provide quality assurance
control and best practices guidance to our domestic and international
operations.

Why We Wrote this Guide


The Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration has
been developed by TETRA in an effort to assist our customers in planning
for and engineering well completions designed to maximize well perfor-
mance and profitability. We hope that this publication provides useful
information and tools that facilitate the application of products and tech-
nologies designed to enhance our customers’ producing formations.

We have provided useful lists and a comprehensive index to help you


access information that is of interest to you. In addition, the interactive
CD version includes full search capabilities.

Use of Icons


There are several icons used throughout the guide to provide the reader
with visual clues. A brief explanation of each follows.

; This icon signifies a Recommendation.

This icon signifies a Note to highlight information that may be important


‡ to readers.

Ì
! This icon signifies a Warning or Caution.

This icon signifies that the associated text refers to Single Salt Fluids.
1 SALT

This icon signifies that the associated text refers to Two Salt Fluids.
2 SALT

This icon signifies that the associated text refers to Three Salt Fluids.
3 SALT

www.tetratec.com TETRA Technologies, Inc.


INTRODUCTION 3

INTRODUCTION
This icon appears next to product names in Chapter 5, “Product Quick
RQ Reference,” to indicate that a product contains at least one ingredient
with an established EPA Reportable Quantity (RQ).

Contact Information

Requesting a Copy of this Guide


To receive a copy of this guide, please include your name, company
name, address information, and phone number in your request and
send it to TETRA via e-mail or by mail as outlined below:

E-mail Your Request to:


[email protected]

Mail Your Request to:


TETRA Technologies, Inc.
Attn: Engineered Solutions Guide
25025 Interstate 45 North, Suite 600
The Woodlands, TX 77380

Accessing this Guide Online


An online version of the TETRA Engineered Solutions Guide is accessible
at www.solutionsguide.tetratec.com. We will post any updates to the
guide on this site and will include links to useful related information and
tools. A CD version is also included at the end of this guide for your con-
venience.

Suggestions, Corrections, or Updates


Please send any editorial suggestions, corrections, or updates to the fol-
lowing address:
TETRA Technologies, Inc.
Attn: Engineered Solutions Guide
25025 Interstate 45 North, Suite 600
The Woodlands, TX 77380
or e-mail them to: [email protected]

We hope that you find this guide useful. TETRA’s service representatives
are available to assist with project planning and to answer any questions
that you may have.

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
4 CHAPTER 1

Notes:

www.tetratec.com TETRA Technologies, Inc.


5

CHAPTER 2 Fluid Planning: Fluid


Selection

This chapter and Chapter 3 of the Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear
Brine Fluids and Filtration are designed to take you through the decision
making process and assist with the planning and development of a well
completion project.

This chapter will cover:


1. Safety and the Environment
2. The Planning Process
3. Fluid Categories
4. Fluid Density
5. Crystallization Temperature
6. Temperature and Pressure Effects
7. Estimating Required Fluid Volume
8. Fluid Compatibility

Safety and the Environment


We begin with a brief reminder about the importance of safety and the
environment when working with clear brine fluids and chemical addi-
tives. The field of safety and environmental protection is broad, con-
stantly evolving, and is outside the realm of this document, which should
only be viewed as a brief introduction. You have two primary resources
in these areas. Your main resource should be the safety and environmen-
tal professionals within your company. The regulatory agencies them-
selves are a second valuable resource. There are many regulatory
agencies in the oil and gas producing regions of the world. Information
provided in this guide is applicable to the United States and associated
offshore areas.

www.tetratec.com
6
ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER 2

An overview of these topics is provided in Chapter 7, “U.S. Safety and


Environmental Information,” which should be read in its entirety before
bringing a clear brine fluid (CBF) to any well location.
AND THE

Personal Safety
An understanding of the nature of CBFs will reduce the risk of personal
SAFETY

injury to those using these materials while conducting completion and


workover operations.

Clear brine fluids are highly concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts,


usually chlorides and bromides. These fluids have an affinity for water
and will even absorb water from the air. Should concentrated brines
come into contact with a person’s skin, this same strong tendency to
absorb water will cause drying of the skin and, in extreme cases, can
even cause a burn-like reddening and blistering.

All precautions should be taken to prevent direct contact between clear


Ì
! brine fluids and the body, especially the eyes and mucous membranes.


Safe work practices should be implemented to reduce worker exposure
to CBFs. When engineering controls are not feasible to prevent expo-
sure, a risk assessment should be conducted and administrative controls
should be initiated that will reduce employee exposure to an acceptable
level.

A properly completed Job Safety/Environmental Analysis (JSEA) will help


‡ to establish these conditions.

Employees who work with or around clear brine fluids should participate
in a safety meeting before any work begins. As previously noted, a more
detailed discussion of safety precautions and appropriate equipment is
provided in Chapter 7, “U.S. Safety and Environmental Information,”
later in the guide.

Environmental Considerations
The constituents of clear brine fluids are common salts and, except for
those containing zinc bromide, can be rendered harmless to the environ-
ment with the addition of sufficient water. Offshore discharges of CBFs to
the environment fall under the regulations of the National Pollutant Dis-
charge Elimination System (NPDES). Zinc bromide is considered a prior-
ity pollutant under NPDES and cannot be legally discharged.

All precautions should be taken to ensure that fluids and additives are
not lost to the environment in an uncontrolled manner. In the event that

www.tetratec.com TETRA Technologies, Inc.


FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 7

SAFETY
this does happen, immediate notification to the National Response Cen-
ter and other regulatory authorities is required if the released fluid con-

AND THE
tains zinc bromide, ammonium chloride, or one of the TETRA additives
listed in Table 49 on page 175 in an amount greater than the estab-
lished EPA reportable quantity (RQ). Because environmental regulations

ENVIRONMENT
can change, always involve your company’s environmental professionals
when planning any completion or workover project.

Under EPA regulations, spills of completion fluids containing zinc bromide


Ì
! or ammonium chloride must be immediately reported to the National
Response Center at 1.800.424.8802 if:
• the quantity of zinc bromide in the spill exceeds the 1,000 lb RQ for zinc
bromide, or
• the quantity of ammonium chloride in the spill exceeds the 5,000 lb RQ
for ammonium chloride.

See Chapter 7, “U.S. Safety and Environmental Information,” for more


information on this subject.

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
8
THE PLANNING PROCESS CHAPTER 2

The Planning Process

Design Rationale
The planning process steps are organized in such a way as to assist you
in using basic pieces of information to develop a coherent project plan
that encompasses all aspects of selecting the correct clear brine fluid,
additives, and associated equipment. Many calculations have been for-
matted as tables or charts in order to help you quickly narrow your
choices. There will also be circumstances that are unconventional or non-
routine. In these cases, equations and appropriate units of measurement
have been provided to facilitate the use of a handheld calculator.

The planning process steps are arranged to enable you to:


1. determine appropriate fluid density using true vertical depth (TVD), bot-
tomhole pressure (BHP), and bottomhole temperature (BHT);
2. select the correct true crystallization temperature (TCT);
3. estimate the volume of clear brine fluid for the job;
4. select the proper clear brine fluid family (single, two, or three salt); or
5. where compatibility issues, corrosion concerns, or sensitive formations
exist, select an engineered fluid system such as a MatchWell™ com-
patibility selected fluid system or a specialty fluid with a PayZone® for-
mation protection additive package.

Figure 1 provides a conceptual flow of the fluid selection process in nor-


mal or non-high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) wells where the use
of carbon steel tubing is planned. Required information or inputs are
shown as arrows entering from the left. The flow steps run from top to
bottom on the right.

www.tetratec.com TETRA Technologies, Inc.


FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 9

THE PLANNING PROCESS


FIGURE 1. Fluid Selection Process

Necessary Inputs Steps

TVD
Determine Equivalent
Fluid Density
BHP + Overbalance

BHT
Make Any
Mudline Temperature Temperature
Corrections
Ambient Temperature

Casing Specifications
Determine Volume
Requirements
Surface Equipment

Select Fluid
If fluid compatibility is not an issue, choose a single, two, or three salt fluid.
If it is, select an engineered fluid system.

Single Salt Fluids Two Salt Fluids Three Salt Fluids


CaCl2, CaBr2, NaBr, CaCl2/CaBr2 & ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2
NaCl, KCl, & NH4Cl NaCl/NaBr

Engineered Fluid Systems


(Compatibility Issues/Corrosion Concerns/Sensitive Formations)

Planning for Wells Requiring Corrosion


Resistant Alloys
Given the potential for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in wells
where corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) tubing will be used, especially in
HPHT wells, the fluid selection process is different than that outlined
above for traditional well completions. Rather than selecting the fluid at
the end of the process, as is done in traditional completions, metallurgy
and fluids should be selected concurrently for wells where a CRA will be
used with a packer fluid. In these wells, it is important to take steps to
decrease the probability of EAC by selecting the best combination of
metallurgy and clear brine fluid for the specific well conditions. In an
effort to better understand EAC, TETRA has participated in extensive test-

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
10
FLUID CATEGORIES CHAPTER 2

ing and, through this testing, has developed the MatchWell fluid compat-
ibility selector. This specialty software is designed to provide customer
recommendation reports that identify compatible and cost effective met-
allurgy/fluid combinations.

Fluid Categories
In reality, planning any completion is an iterative process and will most
likely require more than one pass as you gather more information and
refine your selection. Using basic design information, true vertical depth,
bottomhole pressure, and environmental temperature considerations as
outlined in the following sections, you can determine which clear brine
fluids are a good match for the conditions.

Low density systems usually consist of single salt fluids, which can range
in density from slightly above the density of water, such as 3% potassium
chloride (KCl), to as high as 11.6 lb/gal calcium chloride (CaCl2).
Unique formation properties or concerns about the compatibility of con-
ventional brines with formation water may suggest the use of sodium
bromide (NaBr), calcium bromide (CaBr2), sodium formate (NaO2CH),
potassium formate (KO2CH), or cesium formate (CsO2CH)—the latter
three of which are halide free, containing no chloride or bromide.

Midrange density fluids, 11.7 lb/gal to 15.1 lb/gal, are typically two
salt mixtures of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium bromide (CaBr2).
The boundary between two and three salt fluids in Figure 2 is influenced
by the lower of the expected atmospheric temperature or mudline tem-
perature. In many cases, the lowest temperature in the entire fluid col-
umn is at the ocean floor (mudline) where temperatures can routinely be
less than 40°F. This temperature will often dictate the CBF category that is
available to you.

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 11

FLUID DENSITY
FIGURE 2. Fluid Categories
(Density vs. True Crystallization Temperature)

8.0

9.0
Single Salt Fluids
10.0
Fluid Density (lb/gal)

11.0

12.0

13.0

14.0 Two Salt Fluids

15.0

16.0

17.0

18.0
Three Salt Fluids

19.0

20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

True Crystallization Temperature (°F)

Fluid Density
Expected bottomhole conditions are the basic criteria that influence the
selection of a clear brine completion fluid. The fluid density required for
a job is largely determined by the true vertical depth (TVD) planned for
the well and the expected bottomhole pressure (BHP). True vertical depth
is normally given in feet (ft), and bottomhole pressure is given in pounds
per square inch (psi or lb/in2). These two values are used to determine
the pressure gradient in pounds per square inch per foot of depth (psi/
ft). An additional margin of safety should be added to the BHP to ensure
that control of the well is achieved, usually 200 to 400 psi. The safe bot-
tomhole pressure (noted as BHPs) and TVD are both used in Equation 1
to find the pressure gradient.

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
12
FLUID DENSITY CHAPTER 2

EQUATION 1.

BHPs
grads =
TVD

grads = safe pressure gradient, psi/ft


BHPs = safe bottomhole pressure, psi or lb/in2
TVD = true vertical depth, ft

The pressure gradient can be converted to density in pounds per gallon


(lb/gal) by a change of units, shown in Equation 2.

EQUATION 2.

grad
du =
0.052

du = fluid density, uncorrected for T and P, lb/gal


grad = pressure gradient, psi/ft

0.052 = units conversion factor, gal/in2-ft

As an alternative, the values for TVD and BHPs can be used to find the
required fluid density using Figure 3. This density value is the effective
fluid density that will be required to balance the pressure exerted by the
fluids in the formation. The colored regions in Figure 3 correspond to the
fluid families: single salt, two salt, and three salt.

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 13

FLUID DENSITY
Open this foldout page to view Figure 3,
which shows fluid density in lb/gal based on
true vertical depth in feet and safe bottomhole
pressure in psi.

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
4000 9.6 12.0 14.5 16.9 19.3
4500 8.6 10.7 12.8 15.0 17.1 19.3
5000 9.6 11.6 13.5 15.4 17.3 19.3
5500 8.8 10.5 12.3 14.0 15.8 17.5 19.3
6000 9.6 11.2 12.8 14.5 16.1 17.7 19.3
6500 8.9 10.4 11.9 13.3 14.8 16.3 17.8 19.3
7000 8.3 9.6 11.0 12.4 13.8 15.1 16.5 17.9 19.3
7500 9.0 10.3 11.6 12.8 14.1 15.4 16.7 18.0 19.3
8000 8.4 9.6 10.8 12.0 13.2 14.5 15.7 16.9 18.1 19.3
8500 9.1 10.2 11.3 12.5 13.6 14.7 15.9 17.0 18.1 19.3
9000 8.6 9.6 10.7 11.8 12.8 13.9 15.0 16.1 17.1 18.2 19.3
9500 9.1 10.1 11.2 12.2 13.2 14.2 15.2 16.2 17.2 18.3 19.3
10000 8.7 9.6 10.6 11.6 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.4 16.4 17.3 18.3 19.3
10500 8.3 9.2 10.1 11.0 11.9 12.8 13.8 14.7 15.6 16.5 17.4 18.4 19.3
11000 8.8 9.6 10.5 11.4 12.3 13.1 14.0 14.9 15.8 16.6 17.5 18.4 19.3
11500 8.4 9.2 10.1 10.9 11.7 12.6 13.4 14.2 15.1 15.9 16.8 17.6 18.4 19.3
12000 8.8 9.6 10.4 11.2 12.0 12.8 13.6 14.5 15.3 16.1 16.9 17.7 18.5 19.3
12500 8.5 9.2 10.0 10.8 11.6 12.3 13.1 13.9 14.6 15.4 16.2 17.0 17.7 18.5 19.3
13000 8.9 9.6 10.4 11.1 11.9 12.6 13.3 14.1 14.8 15.6 16.3 17.0 17.8 18.5 19.3
13500 8.6 9.3 10.0 10.7 11.4 12.1 12.8 13.6 14.3 15.0 15.7 16.4 17.1 17.8 18.6 19.3
14000 8.3 8.9 9.6 10.3 11.0 11.7 12.4 13.1 13.8 14.5 15.1 15.8 16.5 17.2 17.9 18.6 19.3
14500 8.6 9.3 10.0 10.6 11.3 12.0 12.6 13.3 14.0 14.6 15.3 15.9 16.6 17.3 17.9 18.6 19.3
15000 8.3 9.0 9.6 10.3 10.9 11.6 12.2 12.8 13.5 14.1 14.8 15.4 16.1 16.7 17.3 18.0 18.6 19.3
15500 8.7 9.3 9.9 10.6 11.2 11.8 12.4 13.1 13.7 14.3 14.9 15.5 16.2 16.8 17.4 18.0 18.6
16000 8.4 9.0 9.6 10.2 10.8 11.4 12.0 12.6 13.2 13.8 14.5 15.1 15.7 16.3 16.9 17.5 18.1
16500 8.8 9.3 9.9 10.5 11.1 11.7 12.3 12.8 13.4 14.0 14.6 15.2 15.8 16.3 16.9 17.5
17000 8.5 9.1 9.6 10.2 10.8 11.3 11.9 12.5 13.0 13.6 14.2 14.7 15.3 15.9 16.4 17.0
17500 8.3 8.8 9.4 9.9 10.5 11.0 11.6 12.1 12.7 13.2 13.8 14.3 14.9 15.4 16.0 16.5
18000 8.6 9.1 9.6 10.2 10.7 11.2 11.8 12.3 12.8 13.4 13.9 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.1

True Vertical Depth (ft)


18500 8.3 8.9 9.4 9.9 10.4 10.9 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.1 14.6 15.1 15.6
19000 8.6 9.1 9.6 10.1 10.6 11.2 11.7 12.2 12.7 13.2 13.7 14.2 14.7 15.2
19500 8.4 8.9 9.4 9.9 10.4 10.9 11.4 11.9 12.4 12.8 13.3 13.8 14.3 14.8
20000 8.7 9.2 9.6 10.1 10.6 11.1 11.6 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5
20500 8.5 8.9 9.4 9.9 10.3 10.8 11.3 11.7 12.2 12.7 13.2 13.6 14.1
21000 8.3 8.7 9.2 9.6 10.1 10.6 11.0 11.5 11.9 12.4 12.8 13.3 13.8
21500 8.5 9.0 9.4 9.9 10.3 10.8 11.2 11.7 12.1 12.5 13.0 13.4
22000 8.3 8.8 9.2 9.6 10.1 10.5 10.9 11.4 11.8 12.3 12.7 13.1
22500 8.6 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.6 12.0 12.4 12.8
23000 8.4 8.8 9.2 9.6 10.1 10.5 10.9 11.3 11.7 12.1 12.6
23500 8.6 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.2 10.7 11.1 11.5 11.9 12.3
24000 8.4 8.8 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 12.0
Three Salt Fluids
24500 8.3 8.7 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.2 10.6 11.0 11.4 11.8
25000 8.5 8.9 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6
Two Salt Fluids
25500 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.4 9.8 10.2 10.6 11.0 11.3
26000 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.7 11.1
14
FLUID DENSITY CHAPTER 2

General Fluid Density Ranges


Table 1 below provides an extensive list of conventional and specialty
clear brine fluids and their working density ranges.

TABLE 1. General Density Ranges for Clear Brine Fluids

Clear Brine Fluid Density Range


lb/gal
Ammonium Chloride, NH4Cl 8.4 - 8.9
Potassium Chloride, KCl 8.4 - 9.7
Potassium-Sodium Chloride, KCl/NaCl 8.4 - 10.0
Sodium Chloride, NaCl 8.4 - 10.0
Sodium Formate, NaO2CH 8.4 - 11.1
Potassium-Calcium Chloride, KCl/CaCl2 8.4 - 11.6
Calcium Chloride, CaCl2 8.4 - 11.6
Sodium Bromide, NaBr 8.4 - 12.7
Sodium Bromide-Chloride, NaBr/NaCl 8.4 - 12.7
Potassium Formate, KO2CH 8.4 - 13.1
Calcium Bromide, CaBr2 8.4 - 15.1
Calcium Chloride-Bromide, CaCl2/CaBr2 11.6 - 15.1
Potassium-Cesium Formate, KO2CH/CsO2CH 13.1 - 19.2
Cesium Formate, CsO2CH 13.1 - 19.2
Zinc Bromide, ZnBr2 15.2 - 20.5
Zinc-Calcium Bromide, ZnBr2/CaBr2 15.0 - 20.5
Zinc-Calcium Bromide-Chloride, ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2 15.0 - 19.2

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 15

C R Y S T A L L I Z A T I O N TE M P E R A T U R E
Density Ranges
There are many fluid options at the lower ranges of density, up to about
10.0 lb/gal. The choice of one brine over another may be based on
unique formation properties. Bromide-chloride two salt fluids and for-
mates reach densities up to 13.0 lb/gal. When the density requirement
is more than 14.0 lb/gal, your selection is limited to two and three salt
halides, zinc bromide (ZnBr2), and cesium formate (CsO2CH).

FIGURE 4. Clear Brine Fluid Density Ranges

Pressure Gradient (psi/ft)

0.42 0.62 0.83 1.04

ZnBr2

CsO2CH

Zn/CaBr2

CaCI2 /Br2

KO2CH

NaO2CH

NaBr

CaCI2

NaCI

KCI

NH4CI

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Fluid Density (lb/gal)

Crystallization Temperature
The presence of high concentrations of soluble salts drastically changes
the temperature at which, when cooled, crystalline solids begin to form.
That temperature is known as the true crystallization temperature. For a

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
16
C R Y S T A L L I Z A T I O N TE M P E R A T U R E CHAPTER 2

more in depth discussion of the relationship between salt concentrations


and crystallization temperature and factors influencing the measurement
of crystallization temperature, see “Crystallization Temperature” on
page 181 in Chapter 8 of this guide.

Temperature Considerations
Except for low density single salt fluids, most CBFs are near their crystal-
lization temperature or saturation point with respect to one or more of
the dissolved salts. Temperature conditions that are likely to be encoun-
tered over the length of the fluid column may cause heating or cooling of
the brine. Rapid or unanticipated changes in weather conditions may
also cause cooling of a fluid as it travels through surface piping and
equipment. It is important to anticipate, as closely as possible, the
weather conditions that may occur during the entire course of the com-
pletion project.

Critical points in the flow path are:


1. ocean water surface temperature,
2. water temperature at the ocean floor (mudline),
3. atmospheric conditions—temperature changes in surface tankage and
distribution piping due to weather,
4. filtration equipment, and
5. pill tanks and storage/transfer tanks.

If the temperature of a completion fluid is allowed to cool below its stated


TCT, solid salts will begin to form. The formation of solids will greatly
increase demands placed on pumping equipment due to increased resis-
tance to flow. The solids formed may impede filtration two ways—
through a cake buildup in the plate and frame diatomaceous earth (DE)
filters and/or by plugging cartridges. Additionally, the formation of sol-
ids can result in stuck pipe.

The loss of soluble salts, either by settling out or filtration, will drastically
Ì
! reduce the density of the completion fluid. Loss of density could result in
a dangerous underbalanced situation.

It is vital to make a temperature profile for the entire flow system


expected for the completion fluids. The lowest temperature likely to be
encountered will determine the safe crystallization temperature.

To provide an adequate safety margin, the TCT for the fluid should be
; set 10°F (5.5°C) below the lowest temperature expected to be
encountered at any point along the flow path.

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 17

C R Y S T A L L I Z A T I O N TE M P E R A T U R E
Seasonal Effects and Brine Selection
Crystallization temperature is controlled by the relative proportions of
different brine constituents and is affected by environmental factors. A
single salt fluid may work during the heat of the summer, whereas at
cooler times of the year, a two salt fluid may be required. In other situa-
tions, ambient temperatures may dictate the use of a three salt fluid in the
winter months, when a two salt fluid might be all that is necessary in the
warmer summer months. An 11.6 blend of calcium bromide (CaBr2) and
calcium chloride (CaCl2) has a lower TCT than that of a pure calcium
chloride (CaCl2) brine of the same density. Adding water can lower TCT,
but doing so will result in a loss of density. Along those same lines, zinc
bromide (ZnBr2) can be used to reduce the TCT of a two salt calcium
chloride-calcium bromide (CaCl2/CaBr2) blend, but the introduction of
zinc bromide (ZnBr2) will change the nature of the working brine and
will impact the environmental regulations regarding conducting disposal
activities and reporting and reacting to spills.

Midrange density fluids, 11.7 lb/gal to 15.1 lb/gal, are typical two salt
mixtures of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium bromide (CaBr2). The
boundary between two and three salt fluids is influenced by seasonal
effects and ocean water temperature at depth. Figure 2 on page 11
shows, in a generalized way, the relationship between a brine family
and TCT. Values along the vertical axis are density in lb/gal. Colored
areas are consistent with those in Figure 3, “TVD-BHP Fluid Density
Chart,” on page 13.

Pressure Considerations—Pressurized
Crystallization Temperature
Deepwater and subsea completions require a greater attention to detail,
especially in terms of TCT. At ocean water depths greater than approxi-
mately 1,500 feet, an additional adjustment must be made to the fluid
formulation. Experience has shown that, at the low temperatures likely to
occur in deepwater wells, pressure becomes a factor, and there can be
an increase in the measured TCT due to the increase in pressure. At
pressures likely to be attained—during the testing of a blowout preventor
(BOP) for example—a fluid which functions correctly under normal
hydrostatic pressure may begin to crystallize with the increased testing
pressure.

TETRA has developed a unique Pressurized Crystallization Temperature


(PCT) test designed to measure TCT at various pressures.

It is strongly recommended that the PCT be determined for fluids


; where low temperature and high pressure conditions may coexist.

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
18
PRESSURE EFFECTS CHAPTER 2

If you are contemplating a deepwater completion, ask your TETRA rep-


resentative to have this unique test performed on your fluid.
AND

Temperature and Pressure Effects


TE M P E R A T U R E

When a brine is put into service, the downhole temperature profile will
cause the brine to expand, lowering the average density of the fluid col-
umn. Pressure has the opposite effect and causes an increase in density.
Adjustments will need to be made to the fluid density to compensate for
the combination of bottomhole pressure and bottomhole temperature.

For fluids with densities less than approximately 12.0 lb/gal, thermal
expansion will typically be in the range of 0.26 lb/gal to 0.38 lb/gal
per 100°F (lb/gal/100°F) increase in temperature. From 12.0 lb/gal to
19.0 lb/gal, the expansion ranges from 0.33 lb/gal to 0.53 lb/gal per
100°F increase. Typically, the density correction is made for the average
temperature of the fluid column. Pressure effects are much smaller and
range from 0.019 lb/gal per thousand psi to 0.024 lb/gal per thousand
psi. Table 2 shows some representative values for thermal expansion (A)
and hydrostatic compression (B) based on data reported in literature
(Bridges, 2000).

TABLE 2. Density Corrections for Temperature and Pressure

Thermal Hydrostatic
Selected
Fluid Type Expansion Compression
Densities (A) (B)

lb/gal1 lb/gal/100°F1 lb/gal/1000 psi1


NaCl 9.0 0.314 0.0189
NaCl 9.5 0.386 0.0188
NaBr 12.0 0.336 0.0190
CaCl2 9.5 0.285 0.0188
CaCl2 10.0 0.289 0.0187
CaCl2 10.5 0.273 0.0186
CaCl2 11.0 0.264 0.0187
CaCl2/CaBr2 12.0 0.325 0.0190
CaCl2/CaBr2 12.5 0.330 0.0193
CaCl2/CaBr2 13.5 0.343 0.0201
CaCl2/CaBr2 14.5 0.362 0.0212
CaCl2/Zn-CaBr2 15.5 0.387 0.0226
CaCl2/Zn-CaBr2 16.5 0.416 0.0244
CaCl2/Zn-CaBr2 17.5 0.453 0.0264
CaCl2/Zn-CaBr2 18.0 0.475 0.0276
1Values in Table 2 are adapted from data in Bridges (2000), Completion and Workover
Fluids, SPE Monograph 19, p 47.

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 19

TE M P E R A T U R E
TABLE 2. Density Corrections for Temperature and Pressure

Thermal Hydrostatic
Selected
Fluid Type Expansion Compression
Densities

AND
(A) (B)

PRESSURE EFFECTS
lb/gal1 lb/gal/100°F1 lb/gal/1000 psi1
CaCl2/Zn-CaBr2 18.5 0.501 0.0288
CaCl2/Zn-CaBr2 19.0 0.528 0.0301
1Values in Table 2 are adapted from data in Bridges (2000), Completion and Workover
Fluids, SPE Monograph 19, p 47.

The fluid density corrected for temperature and pressure (dc) is calcu-
lated using Equation 5 with input values from Equation 3 and Equation 4
and values for A and B from Table 2.

Temperature Correction
EQUATION 3.

A (BHT – surf)
CT =
200

CT = averaged temperature correction, lb/gal


BHT = bottomhole temperature, °F
surf = surface temperature, °F
A = thermal expansion factor, lb/gal/100°F

Pressure Correction
EQUATION 4.

B (BHPs )
CP =
2000

CP = averaged pressure correction, lb/gal

BHPs = safe bottomhole pressure, psi

B = hydrostatic compression factor, lb/gal/1000 psi

The results of Equation 3 and Equation 4 are used in Equation 5 to


obtain the corrected density (dc).

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
20
PRESSURE EFFECTS CHAPTER 2

Corrected Density
EQUATION 5.

dc = du + CT – CP
AND
TE M P E R A T U R E

dc = density corrected for T and P, lb/gal


du = uncorrected density from equation 2, lb/gal
CT = averaged temperature correction, lb/gal
CP = averaged pressure correction, lb/gal

The actual corrected density (dc) of the fluid mixed and delivered to loca-
tion will be slightly greater than determined, based solely on TVD and
BHP in Equation 2 on page 12.

CBF Temperature and Pressure Profile Software (TP-Pro)


A TETRA fluids specialist is equipped to make a more accurate analysis
of the temperature, pressure, and density profile for the entire fluid col-
umn. Using TETRA’s TP-Pro™ program, fluids specialists can analyze the
temperature and pressure conditions along the entire length of the flow
path to ensure that an accurate and reliable prediction of corrected den-
sity is made for your particular application.

TETRA’s TP-Pro program calculates the thermal expansion and pressure


compressibility behavior of clear brine fluids in a wellbore. The program
can be used to model onshore and offshore wells. Solid free brines are
especially susceptible to thermal expansion and pressure compressibility,
which can significantly alter the effective density of the brine in a down-
hole application. Because of this susceptibility, a TP-Pro simulation is rec-
ommended for every solid free brine application to determine the
required surface density of the brine for the necessary effective density.

TABLE 3. TP-Pro Example of Input Variables

TP-Pro Input Variables


Surface Temperature 70°F
Mudline Temperature 39°F
Rig Floor Elevation 82 feet
Water Depth 3,440 feet
Water Depth + Elevation 3,522 feet
Bottomhole Temperature (BHT) 275°F
True Vertical Depth (TVD) of Zone of Interest 17,880 feet
Bottomhole Pressure (BHP) 13,200 psi
Overbalance 250 psi

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 21

TE M P E R A T U R E
TABLE 3. TP-Pro Example of Input Variables

TP-Pro Input Variables

AND
Required Effective Density 14.47 lb/gal
Selected Surface Density 14.60 lb/gal

PRESSURE EFFECTS
Pressurized Crystallization Temperature (PCT) 0°F
Fluid Composition (One, Two, or Three Salt) One Salt
Actual Overbalance 305 psi
Effective Density at 17,880 feet (TVD) 14.53 lb/gal

TABLE 4. TP-Pro Example of Output Variables

Vertical Depth Actual Density Effective Density Temperature


Feet lb/gal lb/gal psi °F
0 14.60 14.60 0 70
41 14.60 14.60 31 70
82 14.60 14.60 62 70
Water Surface
770 14.63 14.62 585 64
1,458 14.67 14.63 1,109 58
2,146 14.70 14.65 1,635 51
2,834 14.73 14.66 2,161 45
3,522 14.76 14.68 2,689 39
Mudline
4,240 14.74 14.69 3,239 51
4,958 14.71 14.70 3,789 63
5,676 14.68 14.70 4,337 74
6,394 14.65 14.69 4,885 86
7,112 14.63 14.69 5,431 98
7,829 14.60 14.68 5,977 110
8,547 14.57 14.67 6,521 122
9,265 14.54 14.66 7,065 133
9,983 14.52 14.65 7,607 145
10,701 14.49 14.64 8,148 157
11,419 14.46 14.63 8,689 169
12,137 14.43 14.62 9,228 181
12,855 14.40 14.61 9,766 192
13,573 14.38 14.60 10,304 204
14,291 14.35 14.59 10,840 216
15,008 14.32 14.57 11,375 228
15,726 14.29 14.56 11,909 240
16,444 14.27 14.55 12,442 251
17,162 14.24 14.54 12,974 263
17,880 14.21 14.53 13,505 275

The results of a TP-Pro simulation are based on best available informa-


tion and assume equilibrium and static well conditions.

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
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E S T I M A T I N G R E Q U I R E D F L U I D VO L U M E CHAPTER 2

Estimating Required Fluid Volume


Objectives
• Maintain well control—ensure a full column of clear brine fluid of an
adequate density
• Respond to pressure changes
• Plan for fluid contingency needs

Factors Affecting
• Well design and surface equipment
• Formation permeability
• Distance to the supply point

Discussion
Carefully estimating the required fluid volume will allow you to maintain
an adequate volume of completion fluid to ensure smooth, uninterrupted
completion operations.

Determination of the appropriate quantity of completion fluid should be


based primarily on the capacity of the casing and tubing used during
completion operations. The quantity of fluid circulating at any time is the
total of the well volume, less the tubing displacement, plus all surface
equipment, piping, pumps, tanks, and filtration equipment. Contingency
planning for additional fluid needs will include potential fluid loss and
density control. Finally, the distance to the supply point may suggest
additional volume to ensure a timely response. As a general rule, the ini-
tial fluid order should be at least two to three times the circulating volume
of the well.

Calculating Volume Requirements


A volume calculation worksheet should include the following:
1. Circulating volume
2. Holding tanks
3. Filtration equipment
4. Surface piping
5. Contingency needs and pill demands

Circulating Volume
Determining the volume of the CBF required to fill the hole and maintain
the required hydrostatic pressure is a matter of adding up the casing,

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 23

E S T I M A T I N G R E Q U I R E D F L U I D VO L U M E
liner, and openhole volumes and then subtracting the volume displaced
by drill pipe or tubing.

Cased Hole with Tubing. Tables of standard API drill pipe, casing, liners,
and tubing are provided in Chapter 6, “Tables, Formulas, and Planning
Support.” Formulas for pipe volume, annular volume, and velocity are
also included in Chapter 6.

Figure 5 is a schematic of FIGURE 5. Combined Casing and Tubing


the two components of
the downhole volume— Casing
tubing volume and annu-
Tubing
lar volume. Determining
the fluid volume required
can be made easy by
IDt
using the internal capaci-
ties for the tubing or
working string given in
Table 19, “API Tubing —
Weight, Dimensions, and
Capacities,” on
page 135 and annular
ODt
capacities in Table 20,
“Annular Capacity,” on IDcasing
page 138.

Values for combined tubing plus annular capacity in barrels per foot can
be calculated using Equation 6. This equation also lends itself to spread-
sheet applications for determining capacity.

EQUATION 6.

(IDcasing2 – ODt2 + IDt2)


Can+t =
1029.4

Can+t = combined annular + tubing capacity, bbl/ft


IDcasing = casing ID, in
ODt = tubing OD, in
IDt = tubing ID, in
1029.4 = units conversion factor, in2 -ft/bbl

Holding Tanks
The tank capacity necessary for a CBF job is often substantially greater
than that required for circulating a drilling fluid. Since brines are contin-

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
24
E S T I M A T I N G R E Q U I R E D F L U I D VO L U M E CHAPTER 2

uously filtered, two holding tanks are required, one for returning fluid
that may be carrying solids and another of equal volume for filtered
fluid. Holding tank volume may also be limited by rig space.

At least one complete hole volume should be available in surface


; holding tanks to allow filtration operations to keep pace with
circulating requirements.

Filtration Equipment
An allowance should be made for filtration equipment. A larger, high
capacity plate and frame filter press with precoat tanks can hold up to
30 barrels of fluid. Table 5 gives some volumes of typical filtration equip-
ment. A typical system will include filter, precoat and body feed tank,
guard unit, pumps, and hoses.

TABLE 5. Typical Filtration Equipment Volumes

Equipment Volume (bbl) Precoat and Guard1 Total


SafeDEflo 600 and C600 5.3 24 29.3
SafeDEflo 1100 7.1 24 31.1
SafeDEflo 1300 8.4 24 32.4
SafeDEflo 1500 9.6 24 33.6
1
Precoat and Body Feed Tanks = 20 bbl and Guard Unit = 4 bbl

Surface Piping
Any unusual requirements for positioning equipment can result in addi-
tional volumes in hoses, pumps, and piping. An allowance of 10 barrels
is a reasonable recommendation.

Contingency Planning and Pill Demands

Fluid Loss Pills. On occasion, it may become necessary to pump a vis-


cous pill into the producing zone to slow fluid loss. The volume of the pill
will be equal to at least the combined annular and tubing volume
through the perforated zone plus some additional footage for safety. As
a rule of thumb, about 1.5 times the volume of the perforated zone can
be used.

Spike Material. Spike material, or spike fluid, is high density fluid that is
transported to and stored on location in case it is necessary to raise fluid
density in order to control pressure or respond to a kick. The volume usu-
ally ranges between 75 and 150 bbl of a selected high density blending
stock. The volume of spike material that is held in reserve should be
based on a number of factors, including:

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 25

E S T I M A T I N G R E Q U I R E D F L U I D VO L U M E
• uncertainty regarding bottomhole pressure,
• treating dilutions of working fluid,
• available storage space on the location or rig,
• density difference between the working fluid and the spike fluid,
• environmental discharge/spill limitations, and
• cost considerations.

A detail that is often overlooked when determining the density and vol-
ume of spike material is the relative amount of spike fluid needed to raise
the density of the working fluid by a particular increment. Often, it is
more economical to use a much heavier spike fluid, even if its unit cost is
higher. The reason for this is that it may take substantially less of the
heavier spike material to obtain the same density increase. An illustra-
tion of this relationship is shown in Figure 6.

For example, it will take twice as much 19.2 lb/gal zinc/calcium bro-
mide (ZnBr2/CaBr2) to raise the density of a 17.8 lb/gal working fluid
by 0.2 lb/gal than it would if a 20.5 lb/gal ZnBr2 spike fluid was used.
Half the volume of 20.5 lb/gal fluid could be transported and stored as
spike fluid. In addition to the smaller storage needs of the higher density
spike fluid, there is the added benefit that, when it is used to achieve a
given density adjustment, it will create a smaller volume increase in the
working fluid.

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
26
E S T I M A T I N G R E Q U I R E D F L U I D VO L U M E CHAPTER 2

FIGURE 6. Selecting and Using Spike Fluids

0.5

0.4
Spike Volume (bbl/bbl)

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Working Fluid Density (lb/gal)

11.6 CaCI2 14.2 CaBr2 15.1 CaCI2 /Br2


19.2 Zn/CaBr2 20.5 ZnBr2

Figure 6 shows the amount of spike fluid, in fractions of a barrel, it takes


to raise the density of one barrel of any working fluid by an adjustment
of 0.2 lb/gal. To use this guide, choose a density of working fluid along
the bottom and lay a straight edge vertically through the chart to find the
relative volume of fluid needed to make a 0.2 lb/gal adjustment.

Permeability and Pressure Conditions in a


Producing Zone
Formation characteristics will play a large role in determining the
amount of fluid that is held in reserve. Large quantities of fluid may be
lost to highly permeable formations or formations that contain fracture
permeability. Experience in a particular producing horizon may dictate
carrying extra fluid inventory to allow for seepage into the formation.

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 27

E S T I M A T I N G R E Q U I R E D F L U I D VO L U M E
Distance to the Supply Point
The distance to the nearest supply point, uncertainty about bottomhole
conditions, and seasonal factors such as temperature changes should be
considered in determining the volume delivered at the beginning of the
job. Deepwater offshore platforms will probably have longer supply lead
times than shallow water or onshore projects. In cases where substantial
delays could impact operations, additional volume should be purchased
to ensure that volume losses can be made up on a safe and timely basis
in order to avoid delays.

Volume Calculation Worksheet


According to the general rule, the initial fluid order should be two to
three times the circulating volume of the well. Another method for deter-
mining the initial fluid quantity is to use a tool similar to the volume cal-
culation worksheet below.

Volume Calculation Worksheet

Equipment Volume
Circulating Volume
Holding Tanks
Filtration Equipment
Surface Piping
Contingency Needs
Total

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
28
FLUID COMPATIBILITY CHAPTER 2

Fluid Compatibility

Mineralogy
Reservoir mineralogy, especially the percentage and type of clays that
will be encountered, may influence your decision as to the type of CBF
best suited to a particular formation. The dominant cation (positively
charged ion) in the brine, for example, ammonium (NH4+), sodium
(Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca+2), or zinc (Zn+2), will react with clay


minerals to promote stability or act as a dispersant. Compatibility testing
of core samples from the reservoir is the most reliable means of assess-
ing the response of clay minerals to a brine. Experience in offset wells
should also be considered if existing data indicates sensitivity of clay
minerals.

Contact a TETRA fluids specialist to arrange for brine compatibility


‡ testing.

Reservoir Fluid Chemistry


Reservoir fluids are in a state of chemical equilibrium with the reservoir
minerals. This state of equilibrium will be disturbed once a formation is
penetrated and production activities begin. Prior to producing the well,
the potential for formation damage resulting from reactions between for-
mation fluids and drilling or completion fluids will exist. The chemical
composition of formation waters should be evaluated for compatibility,
paying attention to the degree of saturation with salt (NaCl) and any
bicarbonate and sulfate ion concentrations.

Metallurgy and Elastomers


Clear brine fluids must also be compatible with the materials used in
downhole equipment and with any tools with which they will come into
contact. Temperature, pressure, and mechanical stresses can result in
corrosion induced by the interaction between clear brine fluids and vari-
ous types of metals. The increase in HPHT drilling has led to greater use
of corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs) in production tubing. The incidence
of catastrophic tubing failure due to environmentally assisted cracking
(EAC) has risen with the increased use of CRAs. Because of these fail-
ures, compatibility of completion and packer fluids with CRA tubing has
become a critical consideration, especially when planning HPHT wells.
To provide empirical data to support its customers, TETRA has partici-
pated in extensive research aimed at understanding the causes of EAC
and the steps that can be taken to decrease the probability of its occur-

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 29

FLUID COMPATIBILITY
rence. TETRA fluids specialists can provide technical guidance in the
proper design of a clear brine fluid system.

Chemically and mechanically induced interactions should be assessed by


‡ TETRA’s fluids experts. If you are planning a well completion where a
CRA will be used, ask for a customer recommendation report from the
MatchWell fluid compatibility selector.

Specialty Formulated Brines and Engineered


Fluid Systems
There are occasions when you may suspect compatibility issues or return
permeability problems. These exceptional conditions may require an
engineered fluid system approach involving TETRA’s specialty brine
blending, a MatchWell recommended fluid, or a nonconventional fluid.

When your data suggests that out of the ordinary conditions may exist in
a well or producing zone, it is best to obtain the advice of your TETRA
fluids specialist and TETRA technical service professional who can help
you explore alternatives. Because these are unique situations, each one
should be investigated and recommendations should be developed on
the basis of available test data.

Some of the conditions that may arise and require unique approaches to
completion fluids may include:
1. density range, bottomhole temperature, and pressure conditions,
2. dispersible or water sensitive clay minerals,
3. metallurgical considerations such as high chromium alloys, and
4. compatibility problems between formation fluids and the completion
fluid.

Reasons to Consider a Specialty Fluid


When making a fluid selection, there are many things you need to con-
sider. Table 6 gives a relative weighing of some of the considerations
that will enter into a decision to use one type of specialty fluid over
another. The decision will usually be based on one primary criterion and
others will be weighed to a lesser degree. If a fluid has a distinct advan-
tage in a particular category over other fluids in the same density range,
a plus sign (+) is shown in that column. An equal sign (=) indicates no
distinct advantage over fluids in the density range. Finally, a minus sign
(–) indicates that a fluid has a disadvantage over other fluids in that par-
ticular density range.

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
30
FLUID COMPATIBILITY CHAPTER 2

TABLE 6. Specialty Brine Considerations

Shale/ Acid
Brine Corrosion Carbonate Sulfate
Clay
Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) + – + +
Potassium Chloride (KCl) + = + +
Sodium Chloride (NaCl) – = + +
Sodium Bromide (NaBr) – = + +
Sodium Formate (NaO2CH) = + + +
Potassium Formate (KO2CH) + + + +
Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) + = – –
Calcium Bromide (CaBr2) + = – –
Cesium Formate (CsO2CH) = + + +
Zinc Bromide (ZnBr2) + – = +
+ advantage
= parity to other options
– disadvantage

Shale/Clay Dispersion
Many clay minerals will swell and can potentially disperse when
exposed to the sodium ion (Na+). In general, fluids containing potassium
(K+) and ammonium (NH4+) ions have a tendency to stabilize clay miner-
als by adsorbing into the clay structure. Divalent ions such as calcium
(Ca+2) and zinc (Zn+2) also strongly adsorb into many clay minerals and
create a nondamaging environment in the vicinity of the wellbore.

Acid Corrosion
Corrosion of metallic surfaces that come into contact with brines is
strongly accelerated by the presence of the hydrogen ion (H+). The
hydrogen ion can be essentially eliminated by raising the pH of a brine.
The pH of fluids containing sodium, potassium, or calcium can be raised
into a range where only negligible concentrations of hydrogen ions are
present. Adjusting the pH of fluids containing ammonium or zinc ions is
not recommended, as those ions are not stable at the pH levels that can
be attained in other CBFs.

Carbonate
Formation waters are in a state of chemical equilibrium with formation
minerals. Certain calcareous reservoirs with a high partial pressure of
carbon dioxide may be incompatible with fluids that contain the calcium
ion. Mixing formation water and calcium containing CBFs may result in
the precipitation of calcium carbonate at the point of contact between the
two fluids. The formation of calcium carbonate can result in permeability
reduction, which is difficult to reverse even with strong acid stimulation.

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 31

THE NEXT STEPS


If formation water analysis indicates high levels of the bicarbonate ion
(HCO3+1), fluids containing calcium should be avoided.

Sulfate
If formation water contains the sulfate ion (SO4-2) at a concentration of
more than 500 ppm, it will react with the calcium ion to form a precipi-
tate that will not readily respond to acid stimulation. Analysis of forma-
tion water will provide the only reliable means to assess the potential for
this type of formation damage.

Of additional concern, the sulfate ion may also be converted to H2S by


sulfate reducing bacteria. If this conversion occurs, the associated health
and corrosion issues will have to be addressed.

The Next Steps


The information outlined in the preceding sections has explained the first
stages of completion fluid planning. At this point, the general brine fam-
ily, density (corrected for temperature and pressure), crystallization
point, metallurgy, and volume of fluid required for the job have been
determined. The following chapter goes through the processes and sys-
tems associated with a CBF job. Information is arranged by system.

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
32 CHAPTER 2

Notes:

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FLUID PLANNING: FLUID SELECTION 33

Notes:

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
34 CHAPTER 2

Notes:

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35

CHAPTER 3 Fluid Planning:


Processes and Systems

At this point, you have chosen a clear brine fluid and made adjustments
for temperature, pressure, and PCT. The volume of fluid required for the
job has also been estimated.

This chapter will cover:


1. Maintenance of Clear Brine Fluid Properties
2. Corrosion Control
3. Displacement
4. Fluid Loss Control
5. Filtration and Brine Clarity

Much of the information contained in each of the following sections is


applicable to all clear brine fluids. For ease of use, where information is
specific, icons have been added to indicate whether it applies to one,
two, or three salt brines.

Maintenance of Clear Brine Fluid


Properties
This section of TETRA’s Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids
and Filtration is concerned with the brine density families depicted in
Figure 2 on page 11. Our goal is to focus your search upon information
that is pertinent to your project. For instance, if you are planning a com-
pletion using a 3% KCl brine, you may want to skip over information that
is specific to high density, three salt fluids. Brine properties also depend
on composition; as the number of salts in a fluid goes up, the response to
changes in brine properties such as the weight up procedure, cutback
procedure, or choice of viscosifying agent to use, will differ. If you are
trying to find information quickly, make use of the icons that indicate

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36
CLEAR BRINE FLUID PROPER TIES CHAPTER 3

whether a section applies to one, two, or three salt brines to help narrow
your search.

Objectives
• Maintain or adjust fluid density
• Control formation pressure
• Minimize fluid loss
• Maintain adequate volume
OF
MAINTENANCE

Factors Affecting
• TVD and BHP
• Sources of dilution
• Density adjustment options
• Operational constraints

Discussion
Maintaining a consistent fluid density is of primary importance in pres-
sure control. Formation pressure is usually estimated within a narrow
range. Occasionally, BHP will be different from that anticipated, and the
fluid density will have to be altered to fit the actual well conditions.
Adjustments may also be required due to dilution. Lower than antici-
pated formation pressure and fluid loss may necessitate a cutback or
downward density adjustment. Conversely, higher pressure will dictate
the addition of weight material to increase density.

Responding to variations in density means that a weight up or cutback


procedure may be necessary. Weight material, either a concentrated liq-
uid blending stock spike fluid or dry salt weight material, should be
available on location in order to allow you to respond quickly and main-
tain safe working conditions.

Single Salt Brine Density Maintenance


1 SALT
With densities from 8.4 lb/gal to 11.6 lb/gal and gradients less
than about 0.6 psi/ft, single salt brines are employed in lower
pressure wells. Maintaining pressure control in these wells is no less
important than in any others.

Unintentional Dilution. Well pressure control can be jeopardized by the


unintentional dilution of a CBF with any source of lower density fluid
such as rain water. The effects of this unintentional dilution will depend
on the density difference between the working fluid and the diluting

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FLUID PLANNING: PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS 37

MAINTENANCE
fluid. The greater the density difference, the more sensitive the working
fluid will be to dilution.

Weight Up. A single salt brine can be reconstituted by adding dry salt

OF
weight material in the correct proportions or by adding liquid weight

CLEAR BRINE FLUID PROPER TIES


material or spike fluid.
• Dry Salt Weight Material can be used to increase the density of a
single salt fluid that has been diluted, as long as adequate mixing
equipment is available. Dry salt additives can also be used if
additional hydrostatic pressure is needed to control the well. (See
Equation 12 on page 69.) Weight up tables for the single salt fluids
are provided in the “Single Salt Fluid Composition and Blending
Tables” section, beginning on page 145.

When adding dry salt to increase density in a fluid, care should always
Ì
! be taken to monitor TCT with respect to environmental considerations.


• Spike Fluid is a fluid of higher density that can be added to a working
fluid to raise its density. Figure 6, “Selecting and Using Spike Fluids,”
on page 26, illustrates the potential for increasing fluid density using a
spike fluid. As the density of the working fluid approaches the density
of the spike fluid, the volume of spike required to raise the density
increases rapidly.

Changes in brine density, either by dilution or weight up, will change the
‡ TCT of a single salt brine. Make sure you have consulted the “Single Salt
Fluid Composition and Blending Tables” section, beginning on page 145,
before making any change to the fluid density.

Adding dry salts to a fluid can result in a substantial increase in brine


Ì
! temperature. A quick pilot test should be run to get a sense of the
temperature rise that may occur. ALWAYS ADD DRY CHEMICALS
SLOWLY, AND FREQUENTLY CHECK THE TEMPERATURE INCREASE.

Make an estimate of the quantity of weight material required to recover


; from a 0.2 lb/gal drop in density, and have at least that amount
available on location.

Cutback. To reduce the hydrostatic pressure on a formation, in order to


slow fluid loss for example, the density of a fluid can be cut back by add-
ing water. Cutback tables have been provided for each of the common
single salt brines in Chapter 6. (See “Single Salt Fluid Composition and
Blending Tables,” beginning on page 145.) The values in the tables are
decimal fractions of a barrel of starting brine needed to make one barrel

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
38 CHAPTER 3


CLEAR BRINE FLUID PROPER TIES

of final density brine when diluted with water. Alternatively, Equation 15,
used for cutting a fluid back using weight percent salts, has also been
provided in Chapter 4, “Field Applications and Brine Maintenance.”

Seawater, due to the dissolved minerals it contains, is not recommended


‡ for use in brine cutbacks.

Two Salt Brine Density Maintenance


2 SALT
OF

Maintaining the density of a two salt brine is more complicated


MAINTENANCE

than for that of a single salt fluid. Standard two salt fluids are
blends of calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium bromide (CaBr2), and water.
The relative proportion of each component determines the density and


TCT of the fluid. Any changes you make to weight a fluid up or cut a
fluid back must be made carefully or your TCT will be altered.

Density adjustment is most commonly required as a result of a fluid’s


dilution by rainwater, field brine, or simply by absorption of water from
the air.

Protecting CBFs from dilution is extremely important. It takes only 3.4


‡ bbl of fresh water to drop the density of 100 bbl of a 14.5 lb/gal CBF by
0.2 lb/gal, which represents a 50 psi drop in bottomhole hydrostatic
pressure in a 5,000 ft well.

Dry Salt Weight Up. Under certain circumstances, dry salt may be used
to increase fluid density; however, caution should be exercised to closely
monitor TCT with respect to environmental considerations. Weight up of
a two salt fluid by adding dry calcium chloride (CaCl2) is not recom-
mended, as doing so will alter the ratio of CaCl2 to CaBr2 and increase
the fluid’s TCT. It is also difficult to mix dry salts into nearly saturated
brines without using specialized mixing equipment. In the event of a
severe limit on fluid volume, addition of dry calcium bromide (CaBr2)
can be used as weight material in two salt fluids. Any composition
changes should be verified using one of TETRA’s proprietary fluid blend-
ing programs.

Spike Fluid Weight Up. For midrange densities, a liquid 14.2 lb/gal
spike fluid can be sent to location for any necessary weight up applica-
tions. Calcium bromide 14.2 lb/gal blending stock is an effective spike
fluid that can be used to weight fluids up from about 11.7 lb/gal to 13.5
lb/gal; however, if the target density is greater than 13.5 lb/gal, the vol-
ume increase with a 14.2 blending stock is more than 50%. A 15.1 lb/
gal spike fluid can be used to achieve a weight up in the range of 13.6

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FLUID PLANNING: PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS 39

MAINTENANCE
lb/gal to 14.8 lb/gal; above that range, the volume increase would be
more than 50%.

Care should be taken when utilizing a 15.1 lb/gal calcium chloride/


Ì

OF
! calcium bromide (CaCl2/CaBr2) spike fluid, as it may raise the TCT of

CLEAR BRINE FLUID PROPER TIES


the resulting brine.

Finally, in extreme cases where the working fluid lies on the boundary of
two and three salt fluids as shown on Figure 2 on page 11, a zinc con-
taining fluid can be used to achieve density increases. In such cases, a
very small amount of 19.2 lb/gal spike fluid would be required; how-
ever, it would change the nature of the working brine; it would also
change the environmental regulations regarding conducting disposal
activities and reporting and reacting to spills. Before making this deci-
sion, weigh the pros and cons carefully.

Estimate the type and quantity of weight material to be used on the job
; based on raising the density of the working fluid by 0.2 lb/gal. Make sure
this amount of material is available on location. It should be kept in
sealed pill tanks to prevent any contamination and/or absorption of
water from the atmosphere.


Three Salt Brine Density Maintenance
3 SALT
High density three salt fluids are blended with precision to maxi-
mize performance and minimize the cost to the operator. This special
attention to composition means equal care and attention should be paid
to maintaining fluid properties like density, TCT, and brine clarity.

It is especially important to protect three salt fluids from dilution. To


‡ prevent contamination and absorption of water from the atmosphere,
this material should be kept in closed top tanks.

There is a considerable difference between the density of a three salt


fluid and most types of dilution water. Rainwater, for example, has a
density of 8.3 lb/gal, and formation water has a density ranging from
8.5 lb/gal to 10 lb/gal. A small amount of contamination from either of
these sources can result in a large change in the density of the working
fluid. For example, it takes only 2.6 bbl of fresh water to decrease the
density of 100 bbl of a 16.5 lb/gal three salt fluid to 16.3 lb/gal (a 0.2
lb/gal decrease). In a 5,000 ft well, this dilution would reduce hydro-
static pressure by more than 50 psi.

The most economical means of maintaining the prescribed density in


three salt fluids is by the addition of 19.2 lb/gal zinc/calcium bromide
(ZnBr2/CaBr2), a common blending stock used in formulating CBFs. For

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
40
CORROSION CONTROL CHAPTER 3

working fluids with densities higher than 16.5 lb/gal, an even more con-
centrated zinc bromide (ZnBr2) fluid will have real economic advan-
tages. This fluid has a density of 20.5 lb/gal. The effects are clearly
shown in Figure 6, “Selecting and Using Spike Fluids,” on page 26.

The advantages of using a higher density spike fluid are:


1. a much smaller volume is required to achieve the same density
increase,
2. less storage volume is needed for spike material on the rig, and
3. less volume increase occurs in the working fluid when adjustments are
made.

Density adjustment using solid chemicals such as dry calcium chloride is


possible, but is not recommended, as it will usually result in a higher TCT.
Calcium bromide dry salt can be used as weight material, especially
when volume increases are not practical. Dry salts will also require vig-
orous agitation to achieve complete solubility in highly concentrated,
heavy fluids.

The quantity of 19.2 lb/gal zinc/calcium bromide spike fluid should be


; estimated based on raising the working fluid density by 0.2 lb/gal. As a
minimum, this amount should be maintained on the rig. To prevent
contamination and absorption of water from the atmosphere, this
material should be kept in sealed pill tanks.

This section is intended to briefly touch on brine maintenance. See


Chapter 4, “Field Applications and Brine Maintenance,” for a more in
depth discussion on the subject.

Corrosion Control
Inhibiting or minimizing corrosion is extremely important when planning
a well. This section provides a brief overview of the topic. A more com-
plete discussion can be found in Chapter 8 in the “Corrosion Control”
section, beginning on page 185.

Objectives
• Protect casing, liner, and downhole tools
• Minimize corrosion promoters
• Render corrosion products nondamaging to the formation
• Protect packer and production tubing

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FLUID PLANNING: PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS 41

CORROSION CONTROL
Factors Affecting
• Temperature
• Brine acidity (pH)
• Surface aeration and air entrainment
• Acid formation gases (CO2, H2S)
• Metallurgy
• Bacteria

Discussion
The factors affecting corrosion are very complex. The information pre-
sented here is intended as a brief introduction. TETRA has done exten-
sive testing in the area of corrosion, especially as it relates to
environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in HPHT wells. A TETRA fluids
specialist will be happy to assist in developing solutions aimed at reduc-
ing the probability of corrosion in your well.

Temperature. Most chemical reactions proceed more rapidly at higher


temperatures. This is also true for the various reactions involved in the
corrosion process. Temperature conditions in the well will provide the
basis for choosing a corrosion program. With proper protection, by
means of a thoroughly planned corrosion control program, brines are
routinely used at temperatures as high as 350°F with corrosion rates of
less than 15 mils per year (mpy). Recommended application rates for
TETRAHib™ and CORSAF™ corrosion inhibitors, OxBan™ oxygen
scavengers, and biological control additives are provided in Table 7,
“Typical Corrosion Control System Applications,” on page 44 at the end
of this section.

Brine Acidity (pH). Single salt fluids range from neutral to


slightly basic when they are manufactured. They can be treated 1 SALT

to increase alkalinity and reduce the presence of the corrosion


promoting hydrogen ion (H +) with the careful addition of a base such as
sodium hydroxide or lime.

Two salt calcium chloride/calcium bromide fluids are neutral to


slightly basic in nature. Alkalinity can be adjusted to further 2 SALT

reduce the presence of the corrosion promoting hydrogen ion


(H +). This adjustment, however, is not easily accomplished in the field.
Because of this, all TETRA two salt fluids are carefully blended to elimi-
nate the presence of corrosion promoters.

Three salt fluids are prepared using calcium chloride (CaCl2),


calcium bromide (CaBr2), and zinc bromide (ZnBr2). When zinc 3 SALT

is dissolved, it has a tendency to create acidic conditions. If a

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
42
CORROSION CONTROL CHAPTER 3

solution is made more alkaline, then zinc may begin to precipitate as


zinc hydroxide (Zn(OH)2). In order to maintain the physical properties of


zinc bromide brines, the pH must be kept at a relatively low level.
Because corrosion is accelerated by low pH, special attention should be
given to minimizing corrosion in three salt fluids. TETRA has a long his-
tory of manufacturing zinc bromide and formulates all of its zinc prod-
ucts to minimize acidity and corrosion.

Contact a TETRA fluids specialist if you have concerns about zinc


‡ precipitation. TETRA has developed a number of solutions to address
this problem.

Surface Aeration and Air Entrainment. Oxygen derived from the air is
a major corrosion accelerator. Oxygen solubility in concentrated salt
solutions is extremely low and becomes even lower as brine tempera-
tures rise. Oxygen can, however, be introduced into the circulating sys-
tem if fluids are allowed to freefall into tanks. Other possible sources for
oxygen are leaking pump seals, agitators, and suction pumps. Small air


bubbles can be entrained in more viscous brines and carried down into
the well. With increasing pressure, the entrained air will eventually dis-
solve and react with casing, tubing, or downhole tools. To reduce the
impact of surface aeration, it is prudent to add a small amount of oxy-
gen scavenger.

OxBan HB can be used at the level of five gal/100 bbl and up,
‡ depending on oxygen entrainment. If not supervised, this course of action
can lead to overtreatment. Preventative measures should be taken to
eliminate air entrainment to reduce such overtreatment.

The presence of trace amounts of oxygen with sulfur containing species


can be a dangerous combination with respect to EAC. For more infor-
mation, see the “Corrosion Control” section in Chapter 8, beginning on
page 185.

Acid Formation Gases. More common in a completion fluid situation,


gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can
accelerate corrosion. Both gases are slightly acidic in nature and will
contribute to the acidity of a brine.

Metallurgy. It is essential that information concerning the metallurgy of


casing and tubing be considered in the planning and design of any com-
pletion. If carbon steel tubing is to be used, the issue of general corrosion
must be adequately addressed. If CRA tubing is to be used, the issues of
EAC must be addressed, with the compatibility between the fluids and
tubing being carefully evaluated, especially if the fluid is to be used as a

www.tetratec.com TETRA Technologies, Inc.


FLUID PLANNING: PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS 43

CORROSION CONTROL
packer fluid. Through participation in extensive scientific test studies in
the area of CBFs, metallurgy, and EAC, TETRA has developed a software
program called the MatchWell fluid compatibility selector. It can be used
to predict tubing/fluid compatibility and performance and make fluid
recommendations based on specific well conditions. For more informa-
tion about EAC, read the “Environmentally Assisted Cracking” section,
beginning on page 189 in Chapter 8.

Consult your TETRA representative to take advantage of this technology


; and receive a customer recommendation report from the MatchWell
fluid compatibility selector to assist you in planning your next HPHT well
completion.

Bacteria. In spite of the salinity and high temperatures found in the sub-
surface environment, bacteria have been found to exist in some of the
world’s most extreme environments. Especially adaptable are iron bacte-
ria, sulfur oxidizing bacteria, and sulfate reducing bacteria. The pres-
ence of these microorganisms can dramatically increase the corrosivity
of the environment, especially if H2S is generated from the bacteria.
Brines that are properly formulated with biocides can eliminate these
bacterial problems.

Recommendations
1. Use a properly formulated TETRA clear brine fluid that has been manu-
factured to the highest specifications.
2. Select a corrosion inhibitor package that is compatible with the metal-
lurgy at the expected bottomhole temperature.
3. Try to reduce all sources of entrained air such as freefalls, excessive
agitation, leaking pump seals, and suction vortices.
4. Do not run jet hoppers unless a polymer is being added.
5. Whenever possible, minimize the contact between CBFs and acidic
gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
6. Select a brine formulation to help neutralize acidic gases.

Table 7 provides recommended application rates for TETRAHib™ and


CORSAF™ SF corrosion inhibitors, OxBan™ oxygen scavengers, and
biological control additives for different brine density ranges.

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration Second Edition
CORROSION CONTROL 44

TABLE 7. Typical Corrosion Control System Applications

www.tetratec.com
Fluid Density Temperature Corrosion Inhibitor Dose1 Oxygen Scavenger Dose1 Biocide Dose1
200°F TETRAHib 10 OxBan 1.5 Antimicrobial Biocide 1
KCl, 3% 8.6
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KCl 9.7
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200°F TETRAHib 15 OxBan 1 Antimicrobial Biocide 1
NaCl 10.0
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NaBr 12.0
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CaCl2 10.0
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CaCl2 11.6
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CaCl2 + CRA2 11.6
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CaCl2/Br2 14.5
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1
Dose quantities are in U.S. gallons per 100 barrels of brine, gal/100 bbl
2Corrosion Resistant Alloy (e.g., 13 Chrome)
CHAPTER 3

TETRA Technologies, Inc.


TABLE 7. Typical Corrosion Control System Applications

Fluid Density Temperature Corrosion Inhibitor Dose1 Oxygen Scavenger Dose1 Biocide Dose1
200°F TETRAHib Plus 10 OxBan HB 10 Antimicrobial Biocide 1
CaCl2/Br2 15.2
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200°F TETRAHib Plus 15 OxBan HB 10-15 Antimicrobial Biocide 1
Zn/CaCl2/Br2 19.0
300°F TETRAHib Plus 20 OxBan HB 10-15 Antimicrobial Biocide 1
FLUID PLANNING: PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS

200°F CORSAF SF 20 OxBan HB 10-15 Antimicrobial Biocide 1


Zn/CaCl2/Br2 + CRA2 19.0
300°F CORSAF SF 30 OxBan HB 10-15 Antimicrobial Biocide 1
1Dose
quantities are in U.S. gallons per 100 barrels of brine, gal/100 bbl
2Corrosion Resistant Alloy (e.g., 13 Chrome)

Engineered Solutions Guide for Clear Brine Fluids and Filtration


45

Second Edition
CORROSION CONTROL
46
DISPLACEMENT CHAPTER 3

Displacement
Introducing a clear brine fluid to a well after drilling operations can be a
critical step in a successful well completion. This section is designed to
provide an overview of the topic. For more information, consult the “Dis-
placement” section in Chapter 8, beginning on page 193.

Objectives
• Protect the formation by developing a completely solid free
environment in which to carry out well completion or workover
operations
• Ensure that drilling fluid constituents do not come into contact with
CBFs
• Separate the two systems to maintain the integrity of the drilling fluid
and the CBF
• Reduce standby rig costs caused by unnecessary filtration time

Factors Affecting
• Mud type
• Pressure constraints
• Environmental discharge limitations
• Time constraints due to rig operations or cost

Discussion
Clear brine fluids are incompatible with water based, diesel oil based,
and synthetic oil based muds. When they are mixed, this incompatibility
generally produces a viscous, unpumpable mass due to flocculation of
the mud by high salt content of the brines. Should this reaction take
place downhole during the displacement, the flow resistance and pump
pressure will increase dramatically, and pumping operations may have
to be suspended due to excessive pressures. To avoid this reaction, drill-
ing muds and CBFs must be separated when the mud is being displaced
from the well.

Carefully preparing surface equipment for the change from a drilling


Ì
! fluid to a clear brine fluid is always important, but is even more critical
when a three salt fluid is being used. It is important to avoid cross-
contamination of drilling fluids with zinc. Even small amounts of zinc can
make a drilling fluid unacceptable for conventional disposal.

www.tetratec.com TETRA Technologies, Inc.


FLUID PLANNING: PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS 47

DISPLACEMENT
The two general methods by which drilling fluids are removed from the
well prior to the introduction of a CBF are indirect displacement and
direct displacement.

Источник: https://www.scribd.com/document/435957482/TETRA-Engineered-Solutions-Guide

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Источник: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-319-58175-0.pdf
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Great Songwriting Techniques by Jack Perricone (z-lib.org).pdf

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i

Great Songwriting Techniques

ii

iii

Great Songwriting Techniques

Jack Perricone

1

iv

1 Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and certain other countries. Published in the United States of America by Oxford University Press 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, United States of America. © Jack Perricone 2018 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, by license, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reproduction rights organization. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above. You must not circulate this work in any other form and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Perricone, Jack, author. Title: Great songwriting techniques / Jack Perricone. Description: New York, NY : Oxford University Press, [2018]

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DraftSight Crack also provides all common pulling tools, as well as many professional tools – professional work is therefore possible. 2D DraftSight CAD-based CAD software models drawings in digital format and edits documents in DWG or DXF format. The application form works from a Cartesian coordinate system, and the selections, levels, and toolbars available get this to program usable by newbies and experts. Overall, DraftSight will come in helpful for nearly anyone in the CAD field, providing users with a couple of tools that are easy to comprehend and change. DraftSight brings many features that you can personalize your designs and makes them even more beautiful to provide to your visitors.

DraftSight 2021 SP2 Crack Full Version Torrent Free Download

It is another CAD software that rises by using an already abundant software market, but runs on a simpler and comfortable procedure, therefore, targeting a more substantial audience. For individuals who seek out options that aren’t present privately shortcuts, a search in the key selections can make all the difference.

Predicated on a collaborative environment, DraftSight exports data to the most diverse platforms, such as PDF, PNG, TIF, SAT and STL. Furthermore to DWG data, the program is well suited for dealing with DXF data. Like other tools, DraftSight uses Open up Design Alliance (ODA) libraries to aid formatting DWG documents. Like other CAD applications, DraftSight also offers a massive amount of tools on the key interface.

PROS:

  1. Possibility to save lots of in DWG.
  2. Obtainable in Portuguese.
  3. Easy-to-use tools.

More Technical Info About DraftSight:

  • Language:                             English
  • File Size:                               182.2 MB
  • Design By:                             CAD Software
  • System:                                Windows 7 / Vista / XP/8 / 8.1 / 10
  • Latest Version:   DraftSight 2021 SP2
  • Related Post:                        Teorex Inpaint Cracked

DraftSight Keys Full Version Download

ERTHGFCV-EWRDHG-RGFVB-RHDFV

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Category: ActivatorsTags: DraftSight 2018 Crack, DraftSight 2018 SP2 Crack, DraftSight Crack, DraftSight Free Download, DraftSight full versionИсточник: https://crackedhere.com/draftsight-crack-full/
Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017038738

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