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Ron`s Editor 12.04.1919 Crack is a powerful CSV file editor. It can open any format of separated text, including the standard comma and tab, separated files (CSV and TSV), and allows total control over their content and structure. With a clean and neat interface, Ron’s Editor is also ideal to simply view and read CSV, or any text delimited files. Ron’s Editor Key is the ultimate CSV editor, whether you need to edit a CSV file, clean some data, or merge and convert to another format, this is the ideal solution for anyone who regularly works with CSV files.
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Modification of software, often to use it for free
Software cracking (known as "breaking" mostly in the 1980s) is the modification of software to remove or disable features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software, especially copy protection features (including protection against the manipulation of software, serial number, hardware key, date checks and disc check) or software annoyances like nag screens and adware.
A crack refers to the means of achieving, for example a stolen serial number or a tool that performs that act of cracking. Some of these tools are called keygen, patch, or loader. A keygen is a handmade product serial number generator that often offers the ability to generate working serial numbers in your own name. A patch is a small computer program that modifies the machine code of another program. This has the advantage for a cracker to not include a large executable in a release when only a few bytes are changed. A loader modifies the startup flow of a program and does not remove the protection but circumvents it. A well-known example of a loader is a trainer used to cheat in games.Fairlight pointed out in one of their .nfo files that these type of cracks are not allowed for warez scene game releases. A nukewar has shown that the protection may not kick in at any point for it to be a valid crack.
The distribution of cracked copies is illegal in most countries. There have been lawsuits over cracking software. It might be legal to use cracked software in certain circumstances. Educational resources for reverse engineering and software cracking are, however, legal and available in the form of Crackme programs.
The first software copy protection was applied to software for the Apple II,Atari 8-bit Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U, and Commodore 64 computers.. Software publishers have implemented increasingly complex methods in an effort to stop unauthorized copying of software.
On the Apple II, the operating system directly controls the step motor that moves the floppy drive head, and also directly interprets the raw data, called nibbles, read from each track to identify the data sectors. This allowed complex disk-based software copy protection, by storing data on half tracks (0, 1, 2.5, 3.5, 5, 6.), quarter tracks (0, 1, 2.25, 3.75, 5, 6.), and any combination thereof. In addition, tracks did not need to be perfect rings, but could be sectioned so that sectors could be staggered across overlapping offset tracks, the most extreme version being known as spiral tracking. It was also discovered that many floppy drives did not have a fixed upper limit to head movement, and it was sometimes possible to write an additional 36th track above the normal 35 tracks. The standard Apple II copy programs could not read such protected floppy disks, since the standard DOS assumed that all disks had a uniform 35-track, 13- or 16-sector layout. Special nibble-copy programs such as Locksmith and Copy II Plus could sometimes duplicate these disks by using a reference library of known protection methods; when protected programs were cracked they would be completely stripped of the copy protection system, and transferred onto a standard format disk that any normal Apple II copy program could read.
One of the primary routes to hacking these early copy protections was to run a program that simulates the normal CPU operation. The CPU simulator provides a number of extra features to the hacker, such as the ability to single-step through each processor instruction and to examine the CPU registers and modified memory spaces as the simulation runs (any modern disassembler/debugger CyberLink PowerDVD 21.0.2106.62 Crack Full Serial Key do this). The Apple II provided a built-in opcode disassembler, allowing raw memory to be decoded into CPU opcodes, and this would be utilized to examine what the copy-protection was about to do next. Generally there was little to no defense available to the copy protection system, since all its secrets are made visible through the simulation. However, because the simulation itself must run on the original CPU, in addition to the software being hacked, the simulation would often run extremely slowly even at maximum speed.
On Atari 8-bit computers, the most common protection method was via "bad sectors". These were sectors on the disk that were intentionally unreadable by the disk drive. The software would look for these sectors when the program was loading and would stop loading if an error code was not returned when accessing these sectors. Special copy programs were available that would copy the disk and remember any bad sectors. The user could then use an application to spin the drive by constantly reading a single sector and display the drive RPM. With the disk drive top removed a small screwdriver could be used to slow the drive RPM below a certain point. Once the drive was slowed down the application could then go Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U write "bad sectors" where needed. When done the drive RPM was sped up back to normal and an uncracked copy was made. Of course cracking the software to expect good sectors made for readily copied disks without the need to meddle with the disk drive. As time went on more sophisticated methods were developed, but almost all involved some form of malformed disk data, such as a sector that might return different data on separate accesses due to bad data alignment. Products became available (from companies such as Happy Computers) which replaced the controller BIOS in Atari's "smart" drives. These upgraded drives allowed the user to make exact copies of the original program with copy protections in place on the new disk.
On the Commodore 64, several methods were used to protect software. For software distributed on ROM cartridges, subroutines were included which attempted to write over the program code. If the software was on ROM, nothing would happen, but if the software had been moved linksadmin, Author at Pc2links RAM, the software would be disabled. Because of the operation of Commodore floppy drives, one write protection scheme would cause the floppy drive head to bang against the end of its rail, which could cause the drive head to become misaligned. In some cases, cracked versions of software were desirable to avoid this result. A misaligned drive head was rare usually fixing itself by smashing against the rail stops. Another brutal protection scheme was grinding from track 1 to 40 and back a few times.
Most of the early software crackers were computer hobbyists who often formed groups that competed against each other in the cracking and spreading of software. Breaking a new copy protection scheme as quickly as possible was often regarded as an opportunity to demonstrate one's technical superiority rather than a possibility of money-making. Some low skilled hobbyists would take already cracked software and edit various unencrypted strings of text in it to change messages a game would tell a game player, often something considered vulgar. Uploading the altered copies on file sharing networks provided a source of laughs for adult users. The cracker groups of the 1980s started to advertise themselves and their skills by attaching animated screens known as crack intros in the software programs they cracked and released. Once the technical competition had expanded from the challenges of cracking to the challenges of creating visually stunning intros, the foundations for a new subculture known as demoscene were established. Demoscene started to separate itself from the illegal "warez scene" during the 1990s and is now regarded as a completely different subculture. Many software crackers have later grown into extremely capable software reverse engineers; the deep knowledge of assembly required in order to crack protections enables them to reverse engineerdrivers in order to port them from binary-only drivers for Windows to drivers with source code for Linux and other free operating systems. Also because music and game intro was such an integral part of gaming the music format and graphics became very popular when hardware became affordable for the home user.
With the rise of the Internet, software crackers developed secretive online organizations. In the latter half of the nineties, one of the most respected sources of information about "software protection reversing" was Fravia's website.
The High Cracking University (+HCU) was founded by Old Red Cracker (+ORC), considered a genius of reverse engineering and a legendary figure in RCE, to advance research into Reverse Code Engineering (RCE). He had also taught and authored many papers on the subject, and his texts are considered classics in the field and are mandatory reading for students of RCE.
The addition of the "+" sign in front of the nickname of a reverser signified membership in the +HCU. Amongst the students of +HCU were the top of the elite Windows reversers worldwide. +HCU published a new reverse engineering problem annually and a small number of respondents with the best replies qualified for an undergraduate position at the university.
+Fravia was a professor at +HCU. Fravia's website was known as "+Fravia's Pages of Reverse Engineering" and he used it to challenge programmers as well as the wider society to "reverse engineer" the "brainwashing of a corrupt and rampant materialism". In its heyday, his website received millions of visitors per year and its influence was "widespread".
Nowadays most of the graduates of +HCU have migrated to Linux and few have remained as Windows reversers. The information at the university has been rediscovered by a new generation of researchers and practitioners of RCE who have started new research projects in the field.
The most common software crack is the modification of an application's binary to cause or prevent a specific key branch in the program's execution. This is accomplished by reverse engineering the compiled program code using a debugger such as SoftICE,x64dbg, OllyDbg,GDB, or MacsBug until the software cracker reaches the subroutine that contains the primary method of protecting the software (or by disassembling an executable file with a program such as IDA). The binary is then modified using the debugger or a hex editor or monitor in a manner that replaces a prior branching opcode with its complement or a NOPopcode so the key branch will either always execute a specific subroutine or skip over it. Almost all common software cracks are a variation of this type. Proprietary software developers are constantly developing techniques such as code obfuscation, encryption, and self-modifying code to make this modification increasingly difficult. Even with these measures being taken, developers struggle to combat software cracking. This is because it is very common for a professional to publicly release a simple cracked EXE or Retrium Installer for public download, eliminating the need for inexperienced users to crack the software themselves.
A specific example of this technique is a crack that removes the expiration period from a time-limited trial of an application. These cracks are usually programs that alter the program executable and sometimes the .dll or .so linked to the application. Similar cracks are available for software that requires a hardware dongle. A company can also break the Nitro Pro Crack 188.8.131.529 + Activation Key Download  protection of programs Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U they have legally purchased but that are licensed to particular hardware, so that there is no risk of downtime Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U to hardware failure (and, of course, no need to restrict oneself to running the software on bought hardware only).
Another method is the use of special software such as CloneCD to scan for the use of a commercial copy protection application. After discovering the software used to protect the application, another tool may be used to remove the copy protection from the software on the CD or DVD. This may enable another program such as Alcohol 120%, CloneDVD, Game Jackal, or Daemon Tools to copy the protected software to a user's hard disk. Popular commercial copy protection applications which may be scanned for include SafeDisc and StarForce.
In other cases, it might be possible to decompile a program in order to get access to the original source code or code on a level higher than machine code. This is often possible with scripting languages and languages utilizing JIT compilation. An example is cracking (or debugging) on the .NET platform where one might consider manipulating CIL to achieve one's needs. Java'sbytecode also works in a similar fashion in which there is an intermediate language before the program is compiled to run on the platform dependent machine code.
Advanced reverse engineering for protections such as SecuROM, SafeDisc, StarForce, or Denuvo requires a cracker, or many crackers to spend much more time studying the protection, eventually finding every flaw within the protection code, and then coding their own tools to "unwrap" the protection automatically from executable (.EXE) and library (.DLL) files.
There are a number of sites on the Internet that let users download cracks produced by warez groups for popular games and applications (although at the danger of acquiring malicious software that is sometimes distributed via such sites). Although these cracks are used by legal buyers of software, they can also be used by people who have downloaded or otherwise obtained unauthorized copies (often through P2P networks).
- ^Kevelson, Morton (October 1985). "Isepic". Ahoy!. pp. 71–73. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- ^Tulloch, Mitch (2003). Microsoft Encyclopedia of Security(PDF). Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press. p. 68. ISBN .
- ^Craig, Paul; Ron, Mark (April 2005). "Chapter 4: Crackers". In Burnett, Mark (ed.). Software Piracy Exposed - Secrets from the Dark Side Revealed. Publisher: Andrew Williams, Page Layout and Art: Patricia Lupien, Acquisitions Editor: Jaime Quigley, Copy Editor: Judy Eby, Technical Editor: Mark Burnett, Indexer: Nara Wood, Cover Designer: Michael Kavish. United States of America: Syngress Publishing. pp. 75–76. doi:10.1016/B978-193226698-6/50029-5. ISBN .
- ^ abFLT (January 22, 2013). "The_Sims_3_70s_80s_and_90s_Stuff-FLT".
- ^Shub-Nigurrath [ARTeam]; ThunderPwr [ARTeam] (January 2006). "Cracking with Loaders: Theory, General Approach, and a Framework". CodeBreakers Magazine. Universitas-Virtualis Research Project. 1 Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U.
- ^Nigurrath, Shub (May 2006). "Guide on how to play with processes memory, writing loaders, and Oraculumns". CodeBreakers Magazine. Universitas-Virtualis Research Project. 1 (2).
- ^FLT (September 29, 2013). "Test_Drive_Ferrari_Legends_PROPER-FLT".
- ^SKIDROW (January 21, 2013). "Test.Drive.Ferrari.Racing.Legends.Read.Nfo-SKIDROW".
- ^"Batman.Arkham.City-FiGHTCLUB nukewar". December 2, 2011. Archived from the original on September 13, 2014.
- ^Cheng, Jacqui (September 27, 2006). "Microsoft files lawsuit over DRM crack". Ars Technica.
- ^Fravia (November 1998). "Is reverse engineering legal?".
- ^Pearson, Jordan (July 24, 2017). "Programmers Are Racing to Save Apple II Software Before It Goes Extinct". Motherboard. Archived from the original on September 27, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- ^ abcdeCyrus Peikari; Anton Chuvakin (January 12, 2004). Security Warrior. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". p. 31. ISBN .
- ^Ankit, Jain; Jason, Kuo; Office timeline activation code - Activators Patch, Soet; Brian, Tse (April 2007). "Software Cracking (April 2007)"(PDF). The University of British Columbia - Electrical and Computer Engineering. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- ^Wójcik, Bartosz. "Reverse engineering tools review". pelock.com. PELock. Archived from the original on September 13, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
- ^Gamecopyworld Howto
- ^McCandless, David (April 1, 1997). "Warez Wars". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
Tom Moran, editor of the Star-Ledger, New Jersey’s largest newspaper, does his best to be a journalistic “hit man” in his piece, “NJ State Sen. Mike Doherty’s Ron Paul endorsement is revealing.” Moran, an unabashed left-winger, lists a couple of Rep, Paul’s core positions—eliminating the income tax and abolishing the Federal Reserve. In addition, Moran correctly points out that Rep. Paul “considers Medicare and Medicaid” to be unconstitutional.”
In other words, Ron Paul wants to reduce the size of the federal government to its constitutional duties. Nowhere in the U.S. Constitution is there any authority for the federal government to provide healthcare for the American people. If Moran can find in the U.S. Constitution the explicit authority for these programs, I will donate all my salary to the charity of his choice.
As Rep. Paul has said repeatedly, the federal government should maintain its commitment to senior citizens and have a transition period for Medicare recipients and poor people. During the transition, young people would have to save so they would be responsible for themselves and their families as they go through life. That would require phasing out the income tax so gridinsoft anti-malware 4.0.17 crack - Free Activators can have more of their own income to put aside for their senior years. Low income folks and the poor would eventually obtain healthcare through local charities so we can replace the wasteful and fraudulently ridden Medicaid program.
Abolishing the Federal Reserve is a no brainer. The Fed’s “printing press”—actually an unlimited checking account—causes inflation; it also manipulates interest rates causing unsustainable booms, which always end in painful busts, as we are going through right now.
Rep. Ron Paul has been the most passionate defender of the American people’s civil liberties, voting against the Patriot Act and criticizing the TSA’s legal sexual assaults at the nation’s airports.
Moreover, as far as the issue of war and peace is concerned, Rep. Paul has been the most vocal critic of the federal government’s military adventurism, preemptive wars and the hugely expensive military-industrial complex. He has called for a noninterventionist foreign policy, which would help revive our economy and reduce the animus toward America in the Muslim world.
Every defender of civil liberties, fiscal conservatism and not using our military for nation building should applaud Mike Doherty’s endorsement of Ron Paul for the Republican presidential nomination.
As far as Moran’s crack that Ron Paul “would allow prostitution,” Earth unhackme 10.10 registration code - Free Activators Tom. The president of the United States does not have the ability to allow or disallow prostitution. This is a state issue. In fact, “prostitution” is already legal. When a man whines and dines a woman and then they have an intimate moment at his or her place, that is usually called a “hot date.” However, if a man pays a woman for sex, they both become “criminals.” Hypocrisy has no bounds in America.
Tom Moran’s hit piece is more revealing of his economic illiteracy and Stardock WindowBlinds License key support for government misconduct at the nation’s airports, disrespect for the American people’s civil liberties, and defender of the Federal Reserve’s legalized counterfeiting and overseas empire.
In other words, Tom likes big government in all its evil manifestations. Now that is revealing.
Bipartisan Wisconsin Lawmakers Unveil Marijuana Decriminalization Bill
Bipartisan Wisconsin lawmakers on Tuesday unveiled a bill to decriminalize marijuana possession, a notable development in a state where cannabis reform has consistently stalled in the GOP-controlled legislature despite support from the Democratic governor.
Reps. Shae Sortwell (R) and Sylvia Ortiz-Velez (D) are sponsoring the legislation in the Assembly, with a companion bill being led in the Senate by Sens. Kathleen Bernier (R) and Lena Taylor (D). There are currently about a dozen cosponsors attached to the proposal across both chambers and parties.
At a time when more and more local Wisconsin jurisdictions are independently enacting cannabis reforms, this bill seeks to standardize decriminalization at the state level. That said, some advocates have pointed out that, in doing so, it may undermine some city policy changes by mandating higher fines than are now currently in effect.
The measure would make it so possession of up to 14 grams of marijuana would be punishable by a $100 civil fine without the threat of jail time under state law for a first offense.
Importantly, the bill would also eliminate “counting” of offenses if they involve 28 grams of cannabis or less, meaning people would not be subject to enhanced penalties for repeat offenses.
While it remains to be seen whether the legislature will have the appetite to advance the measure, the sponsors say they’re working to strike a balance between legalization—as the governor, advocates and some legislators want—and the status quo of criminalization.
Marijuana Moment is already tracking more than 1,200 cannabis, psychedelics and drug policy bills in state legislatures and Congress this year. Patreon supporters pledging at least $25/month get access to our interactive maps, charts and hearing calendar so they don’t miss any developments.
Learn more about our marijuana bill tracker and become a supporter on Patreon to get access.
“Trying to bring together different areas of the state and different political perspectives can be difficult on any issue, and particularly on this one,” Sortwell said at a press conference on Tuesday.
“I know I’ve spoken with some really hardliners who want to continue to make sure that this is completely illegal, want to leave it at felony levels for everything, really crack down hard on the usage of it,” he said. “And then we’ve got some people on the other end of the political spectrum that want full legalization, want it regulated like alcohol.”
“I believe this bill that we have put together does our best to pull together the best of both worlds, trying to bring together all perspectives across the state to try to find some sort of middle ground where we can move forward,” the representative said.
Local governments would have some flexibility in setting their own policies, but they could not impose a civil fine of less than $100 or more than $250 for low-level possession. And courts could choose to impose a minimum of 16 hours, or a maximum of 40 hours, of community service in lieu of a civil fine.
While advocates are still pushing for comprehensive legalization—and a trio of senators announced the filing of a bill to accomplish that in August—this reform would at least help address the punitive approach that Wisconsin has taken to cannabis.
As it stands, marijuana possession is punishable by a maximum $1,000 fine and up to six months in jail for a first offense. People convicted of a subsequent offense would face a felony charge punishable by a maximum $10,000 fine and up to three and a half years in prison.
However, there is a complicating factor in the new bill. The discretion that Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U municipalities would be afforded is limited, and it appears the legislation could actually lead to increased civil penalties in cities that have imposed much lower fines for possession. In Milwaukee, for example, the fine is set at $1, while the new measure would require that to be increased to $100.
“We know that by putting this bill into effect that we can get rid of that patchwork at the local ordinances in different areas. We can set a standard across the state,” Ortiz-Velez, who also championed local reform as a Milwaukee Mobaxterm professional portable - Activators Patch supervisor, said. “I look forward to this bill having a hearing to hear the people of Wisconsin get to weigh in on this matter.”
The new decriminalization bill would also reduce penalties associated with paraphernalia—making the penalty a $10 civil fine instead of a maximum $500 fine and up to 30 days in jail.
“The bill also specifies that a citation issued for possession of marijuana or marijuana paraphernalia must contain provisions for a deposit in lieu of a court appearance,” according to a legislative analysis. “The court may consider the deposit as a plea of no contest and enter a judgment without the person appearing in court.”
Police would also have some discretion under the legislation. They wouldn’t be required to take a person to jail, book wise care 365 pro license key 2020 - Activators Patch or take their fingerprints for cannabis possession; they would simply need to collect basic personal information including the person’s name and address.
Finally, the legislation also provides liability protections for employers who choose not to drug test most workers for THC. There are some exceptions, including companies that are contracted with the federal Department of Transportation.
Sortwell said at Tuesday’s press event that he’s spoken to Assembly Republican leadership about the proposal and “they didn’t give me a ‘no,’ so I take that as a win.”
“They didn’t give me a ‘no,’ they didn’t give me a ‘yes,'” he said. “They took it under advisement.”
Wisconsin Gov. Tony Evers (D) is a supporter of legalization and complained in April that he was “tired” of hearing about sales figures from his neighbor’s adult-use market, joking that Illinois Gov. J.B. Pritzker (D) “thanks me for having Wisconsinites cross the border to buy marijuana.”
Evers tried to legalize recreational and medical marijuana through his proposed state budget earlier this year, but a GOP-led legislative committee stripped the cannabis language from the legislation in May. Democrats tried to add the provisions back through an amendment the next month, but Republicans blocked the move.
Other Republican lawmakers have filed bills to more modestly decriminalize marijuana possession in the state, but none of those proposals advanced during this year’s session.
Evers held a virtual town hall event in April where he discussed his cannabis proposal, emphasizing that polling demonstrates that Wisconsin residents back the policy change.
Locally, Wisconsin voters in three jurisdictions last year approved non-binding advisory questions in favor of marijuana legalization. Those moves came after Wisconsinites overwhelmingly embraced cannabis reform by supporting more than a dozen similar measures across the state during the 2018 election.
Late last year, city officials in the state’s capital, Madison, voted to remove most local penalties for cannabis possession and consumption, effectively allowing use by adults 18 and older.
Again, that policy change could be impacted if the new bipartisan bill is enacted as introduced, potentially requiring Madison to impose a $100 fine for possession of up to 14 grams.
Read the text of the bipartisan marijuana decriminalization bill that the Wisconsin lawmakers introduced below:
First Responders No Longer Disqualified For Past Marijuana Use In Austin
Marijuana Moment is made possible with support from readers. If you rely on our cannabis advocacy journalism to stay informed, please consider a monthly Patreon pledge.
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Financial Post: Bell’s vertical integration hearings begin
CRTC hearings began this morning on Bell's proposed $3.4-billion takeover of Astral Media. If the deal is approved, it would greatly increase Bell's media ownership across Canada's broadcast spectrum – all at the expense of restricting fair market choice and competition for Canadians. The time to unite and speak out against Bell's maneuvering is now. Let the CRTC hear our disapproval by adding your voice to our ongoing campaign at StopTheTakeover.ca. Article by Jamie Sturgeon for Financial Post Odds are near certain you’ve never heard of ViaNetTV, a tiny Toronto-based television startup. And if BCE Inc. gets its way you never will, according to its founder, Alexei Tchernobrivets. For more than a year, ViaNetTV has attempted to negotiate with Bell Media, the sprawling telecom and media conglomerate’s entertainment unit, for the right to carry Bell-owned television channels like Discovery and MuchMusic through its new TV service.
Similar deals have been struck with other programming owners, like Shaw Communications Inc. as well as Astral Media Inc. Talks with Rogers Communications Inc., another integrated giant, are proceeding amicably.
But Bell hasn’t budged, refusing to show Mr. Tchernobrivets even a rate card for channels while demanding ViaNetTV signs strict non-disclosure agreements and hand over its business plans. Without cable mainstays like Bell’s news and information channel, CP24, ViaNetTV loses critical appeal for potential subscribers, the young executive says.
“This is literally holding Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U business hostage right now. And every day we’re losing money.”
ViaNetTV, a fledgling firm looking to crack the traditional — and still very profitable — TV market with its innovative hybrid product that blends TV with the Web, isn’t alone in its frustrations. The company’s experience is a microcosmic proxy for the tense dynamic developing now between Bell and players big and small across Canada’s $16.6-billion television distribution market.
As Bell moves closer to consolidating an unparalleled amount of TV assets under its wings with its acquisition of Astral, fears have risen that Bell’s newfound scale (called “gargantuan” by a top media executive at a rival last week) will grind or simply sweep many competitors into their graves. Smaller channel owners, the ones who require distribution on Bell’s network, share concerns about being further marginalized in the TV universe.
Through hearings in Montreal starting Monday morning into the $3.38-billion deal, industry stakeholders across the sector will implore regulators at the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to give teeth to a “vertical integration” code; a framework erected last year to prevent Bell, whose history includes decades of monopoly power in the telephone business, from becoming too powerful in the TV market.
“The code is hugely important to guarantee good behaviour,” says Jay Switzer, chairman of Hollywood Suite, which operates four movie channels, and a veteran media executive.
“We think that having creative and great product will drive our business, but that doesn’t mean that effective regulation in the background isn’t a good thing.”
The code, which critics deride as a loosely adhered to guideline rather than statutory framework, has worked to minimal effect so far.
Louis Audet, chief executive of Cogeco Cable Inc., the country’s fourth-largest cable provider, and others point to their own 18-month long struggle to renew carriage contracts with Bell, concluded in July through last-ditch arbitration. Like tiny VMedia’s founder, Mr. Audet portrays Bell as strong-arming his company into agreement.
“You have an uncooperative, not-forthcoming party that already owns too much, already bullied smaller players into accepting deals that are unacceptable trying to exact unreasonable rents and it wants to own more,” says Mr. Audet, who will be appearing before the CRTC this week.
If the Astral deal is approved, Bell will own more than 53 specialty services, two conventional TV networks and more than 100 radio stations (and a sizable outdoor billboard business to boot). Its closest competitor, Shaw Media, owns 18 specialty channels and one network, Global. Read more »
Read more at Financial Post
Speak out in telling the CRTC to look closer at the consequences of Bell's takeover »
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Everything Wrong with the Reagan Administration
To discover everything wrong with the Gipper, we have to challenge myths from all sides.
Dr. Witcher earned his B.A. in history from the University of Central Arkansas in 2011 and received his Ph.D. in history from the University of Alabama in 2017. Dr. Witcher is currently a Scholar‐in‐Residence at the University of Central Arkansas where he offers classes in Modern American History including courses on the Cold War, the Conservative Movement, and U.S. Economic Development. His research on conservatism has appeared in White House Studies Journal, and he is the co‐editor of a three‐volume anthology entitled: Public Choice Analyses of American Economic History. His most recent book Getting Right with Reagan: The Struggle for True Conservatism, 1980–2016 was published by University Press of Kansas. He is currently researching for his next book entitled Fulfilling the Reagan Revolution: Clinton, Gingrich, and the Conservative 90s.
“Everything Wrong with the Presidents” series focuses on, as the title suggests, everything each president did wrong while in office. While many presidents enacted worthwhile, and even occasionally beneficial, policies, that’s not what these essays are about. Thus, silence regarding the good actions should not be taken as denial of their existence.
Ronald Reagan is beloved by American conservatives and by many Americans who advocate for limited government. Reagan is difficult to evaluate because in the last 30 years Reagan’s legacy has undergone a dramatic transformation – a transformation that has left many of his most ardent supporters with a conception of the fortieth president that is far from reality. Any attempt to truly judge Reagan from a classically liberal perspective requires getting beyond the myth, contextualizing the Reagan administration, and evaluating the 1980s. 1Any analysis of Reagan, however, must also consider his powerful deployment of language to aid his cause. Although Reagan’s policy prescriptions were often lacking, his rhetoric fundamentally altered the way politicians frame policy and the way Americans think about their relationship to government. In this, Reagan imbued an understanding of the limits of federal government intervention in generations of Americans.
In a 1975 interview with Reason, Reagan insisted that he believed that “the very heart and soul of conservatism is libertarianism.” The former governor of California had taken to describing himself as a “libertarian” or a “libertarian‐conservative” and the editors at Reason were interested in what exactly Reagan meant when he used the term. When questioned, Reagan explained that “the basis of conservatism is a desire for less government interference or less centralized authority or more individual freedom and is a pretty general description also of what libertarianism is.” Reagan exhibited an understanding of the “shades” of libertarianism asserting that he did not agree with those who wanted “no government at all or anarchy.” Reagan insisted that he believed “there are legitimate government functions.” Sounding rather Lockean, Reagan explained that “some government” was necessary to “maintain freedom or we will have tyranny by individuals.” He continued that “we have government to ensure that we don’t each one of us have to carry a club to defend ourselves.” Reagan concluded that he believed that “libertarianism and conservatism are travelling the same path.” 2
The interviewers pressed Reagan further asking him to list some examples of the legitimate role of government. After listing national defense and the protection of individual rights, Reagan exclaimed that he did not “believe in a government that protects us from ourselves.” When pressed on issues of gambling Reagan said he went back and forth about whether that was a victimless crime. As for prostitution, Reagan cited public health and asserted he was opposed to decriminalization. When asked about censorship and pornography, Reagan said that he “didn’t want the picture industry doing it” but insisted he was “opposed to outside censorship” of the industry. Reason pivoted and asked Reagan what scholars had been influential to his “intellectual development.” Reagan responded that he was “an inveterate reader. Bastiat and von Mises, and Hayek and Hazlitt-I’m one for the classical economists.” 3
Reagan’s Relationship with the New Right
From reading the 1975 Reason interview, it is clear that Reagan had thought deeply about issues near and dear to libertarians’ hearts. Reagan was a deeply religious man (although he was not always the most active or visible Christian) and as such he found issues that dealt with sex, drugs, and licentiousness to be difficult issues to square. 4 Often, however, he came down on the side of allowing individuals to make up their own minds on how best to live their lives. In 1978, California state Senator John V. Briggs introduced Proposition 6, which would have repealed a state law that protected teachers who were gay from discrimination and granted school districts the ability to fire any teacher that supported homosexuality publicly. The Briggs Initiative ultimately failed, and Briggs placed the blame squarely on Ronald Reagan. Reagan opposed Proposition 6 explaining to Californians that it had “potential for real mischief” and that it would ruin “innocent lives.” 5 Once the initiative was defeated, Briggs exclaimed “that one single endorsement—Ronald Reagan—turned the polls around.” He added that “for Ronald Reagan to march to the drums of homosexuals has irrevocably damaged him … he’s finished as a national politician.” 6 Likewise, Jerry Falwell – who had traveled to California to campaign for the Briggs Initiative, asserted that Reagan had taken “the political rather than the moral route” and insisted that Reagan “would have to face the music from Christian voters” in 1980. 7
Despite Falwell and other members of the New Right’s frustration, they supported Eset internet security license key - Activators Patch for president in 1980. They were dismayed, however, when he did not push socially conservative legislation once in office. Specifically, the Reagan administration did not spend a ton of political capital in the battle for a right to life amendment or the amendment to allow prayer in public schools. Fuming after being defeated, the socially conservative Republican Senator of North Carolina Jesse Helms condemned the administration asserting he did not “know of a single vote they obtained for us.” 8 Much to the agony of social conservatives, Reagan did not push their agenda. The closest he came to advocate for social conservatism was in appointing conservative judges, many of whom agreed with the New Right’s social agenda. 9
Reagan often gets blamed for not doing Slimjet Browser for Windows 7 to combat the AIDS epidemic, however, his administration did dramatically expand funding for AIDS and made it the department of Health and Human Services’ top priority. 10 Furthermore, Reagan appointed his Surgeon General C. Everett Koop to research and respond to the epidemic. Koop, who was a darling of the New Right for his views on smoking and abortion, enraged social conservatives by promoting an agenda of sex education to combat the spread of AIDS. 11 Furthermore, Reagan rejected the more radical suggestions on how to address the crisis. Conservatives such as Phyllis Schlafly and Jerry Falwell were appalled that Reagan was not doing more to protect the nation from the AIDS epidemic. Conservatives launched a campaign to pressure Reagan into cracking down on homosexuals (the group primarily affected by the disease) and some even accused the government of “conspiring with the homosexual community to ‘cover up’ the epidemic.” 12 It took Reagan until 1985 to speak publicly about AIDS and the president did not give a major address Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U the subject until 1987 when he called on the American people to show “urgency, not panic … compassion, not blame … and understanding, not ignorance.” Reagan asserted the importance “that America not reject those who [had] the disease, but care for them with dignity and kindness.” Reagan concluded his remarks by reminding the American people, “this is a battle against a disease, not against our fellow Americans.” 13 Although Reagan’s sentiment was laudable, the fact that the president did not use the bully pulpit of the presidency to address the seriousness of the AIDS epidemic sooner speaks to the culture of homophobia that existed in the 1980s and to the fact that Reagan was constrained by his domestic coalition.
Imagining a World Without the War on Drugs
Drug prohibition has been catastrophic, with a tremendous human cost. Here’s what would happen if we ended it.
One area that Reagan did pursue the New Right’s agenda was his escalation of the War on Drugs. He and Nancy launched the “Just Say No” campaign in 1982. It aimed to educate children about the dangers of illegal substances. The goal of educating America’s youth was no doubt a noble one, however, critics have claimed that the initiative did little to decrease drug usage, lumped all illegal drugs together, and may have actually increased mass incarceration. 14Likewise, Reagan leveraged federal highway funding to force states to adopt 21 as the legal drinking age. Regardless of the intentions or the effects of this action, Reagan’s willingness to sign the National Minimum Drinking Age Act seemingly violated his view that government should not be in the business of protecting us from ourselves.
Reagan’s Promise of Free Market Capitalism Fell Short
Ronald Reagan is remembered as an advocate of free market capitalism; however, the reality is a bit more complicated. When Reagan was elected, he vowed to cut taxes, balance the budget, and increase military spending. He ultimately succeeded in doing two of the three.
When Reagan took office, the US economy was struggling under what was known as “stagflation” – high unemployment coupled with high levels of inflation. President Jimmy Carter had appointed Paul Volcker as Chairman of the Federal Reserve and Volcker was determined to get inflation under control by raising interest rates. Reagan, having read Milton Friedman and others, agreed with Volcker’s approach and gave the Fed Chairman room to implement his monetary policy. 15 As expected, raising the interest rates sent the economy into recession and left Reagan with a low approval rating.
In order to combat the recession, Reagan drew on the theory of Supply‐side economics – the belief that tax rates could be so high that they discouraged businessmen and women from expanding thus decreasing economic growth and potentially cutting off potential revenues. As such, Reagan embraced the Kemp‐Roth tax plan, later denoted the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA). Reagan signed ERTA into law in July 1981. The act reduced the marginal income tax rate by 23 percent on top earners and provided significant reduction in taxes for businesses. 16 The goal of ERTA was to provide a stimulus to the struggling economy by rewarding business and entrepreneurial activity. Unfortunately, the tax cuts were phased in over three years and as a result the benefits were delayed. 17
For most of 1981 and all of 1982, the nation was in the midst of a recession. Unemployment increased and high interest rates stifled economic expansion. The deficit, which had been high during Carter’s final year in office, skyrocketed and Americans began to blame the president for runaway debt. Reagan had succeeded in cutting some spending in his first budget, but David Stockman, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, was extremely frustrated with the bureaucratic inertia that pushed back against any meaningful cuts. Stockman found himself fighting with Cabinet Secretaries who were supposed to be carrying out the Reagan Revolution of decreasing the size and scope of government. Instead, the Cabinet Secretaries fought many of the important cuts. Ultimately, Stockman laid the blame for his inability to significantly cut spending on Reagan himself. In his memoir, Stockman lamented that only an “iron chancellor” could have implemented a fiscally responsible budget and “Ronald Reagan wasn’t that by a long shot.” 18
Of course, Reagan also faced the challenge of getting spending cuts through a Democratic House – something that would prove extremely difficult. As such, Reagan decided to seek additional revenues in 1982 by raising taxes. He and Speaker of the House Tip O’Neil held a press conference in the Rose Garden explaining the legislation. The image alarmed some of his most ardent supporters who viewed Reagan’s support for tax increases a betrayal of the Reagan Revolution. 19 Reagan Auslogics Anti-Malware Download - Crack Key For U to those who were concerned that “more than three‐fourths of the revenue raised comes from increased taxpayer Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U and the closing of tax loopholes.” Reagan would also maintain that O’Neil had promised him three dollars’ worth of spending reductions for every dollar in tax increases. A promise – if it corel aftershot pro 3 download - Crack Key For U indeed made – that would not be kept.
Despite the tax increases, by early 1983 the American economy was beginning to rebound. Volcker’s hard medicine had tamed inflation and the Reagan tax cuts were now fully in effect. President Carter deserves some credit for appointing Volcker and for deregulating the transportation industry. Reagan built on Carter’s deregulations ending price controls on gasoline. Furthermore, Reagan further decreased tax rates and simplified the tax code when he signed the Tax Reform Act of 1986. 20 The combination of sound monetary policy, tax cuts, deregulation, and increased military spending resulted in impressive rates of economic growth from 1983 through the end of the Reagan administration. Unemployment also began to decline as the American economy produced around 19 million new jobs from 1983 to 1988. 21
Although the Reagan economic record is impressive, critics have claimed that Reagan did little to end the flow of manufacturing jobs overseas and that his policies exacerbated income inequality. The main criticism of Reagan, however, is that his administration increased the national debt by 186 percent. Reagan’s insistence on dramatically increasing the defense budget (by around 35 percent) and his inability to decrease domestic spending led to an explosion of the national debt. During his administration the debt increased by $1.86 trillion. 22
Social security, also known as social insurance, refers to a wide range of government policies designed to redistribute income.
Another aspect of Reagan’s economic legacy was his ability to compromise with O’Neil to save Social Security. Although Reagan had denounced the federal government’s role in Americans’ retirements, he signed the Social Security Reform Act of 1983 that “increased the Social Security payroll tax, raised the retirement age for recipients to sixty‐seven, required federal employees to join the system, and placed taxes on the benefits of higher‐income recipients” 23 Upon signing the bill, Reagan exclaimed that this “demonstrates for all time our nation’s ironclad commitment to Social Security.” 24 On the one hand, Reagan could be praised for his willingness to compromise his principles and work across the aisle to save a program that most Americans supported. On the other hand, although Reagan and O’Neil made Social Security sustainable, their reforms kicked the can down the road. In 1983, Reagan – who was at least rhetorically committed to free markets – was presented an opportunity to attempt to privatize Social Security or fundamentally alter the system so it achieved long‐term sustainability. Instead Social Security continues to face long‐term insolvency and is one of the largest drivers of the debt.
All in all, the Reagan economic record is impressive. Although he failed to get a balanced budget amendment through Congress and the national debt increased dramatically during his presidency, the 1980s were a time of economic growth and technological advancement. Most Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U, however, was the way in which Reagan altered the American political discourse. Furthermore, the Reagan years forced the Democrats to adopt a more moderate and fiscally conservative agenda. In many ways, the 1990s were a conservative decade in which many of Reagan’s unrealized goals became law (welfare reform, a balanced budget, further deregulation etc). 25
Rising Tension with USSR as the Pentagon Budget Increased
Everything Wrong with the Nixon Administration
Veterans of the Vietnam War suffered through decades of physical and emotional distress – a result of the imperial presidency spearheaded by Nixon himself. Read more about Nixon’s presidency here.
Many Americans today believe that Ronald Reagan won the Cold War perhaps as British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher declared, “without firing a shot.” 26 Likewise, many conservatives argue that Reagan’s tough language and massive increases in defense spending bankrupted the Soviet Union and led to America’s triumph. Although Reagan deserves credit for the Cold War coming to a peaceful end, his real contribution was not his bellicose rhetoric but rather his willingness to negotiate with Mikhail Gorbachev. Reagan ultimately deescalated tensions (that he had earlier in his KLS Backup Professional 10.0.3.7 Crack + Keygen Free Download intensified) and gave Gorbachev the opportunity to implement reforms that ultimately acted as a poison pill to the USSR.
Reagan campaigned against détente – the policy of easing tensions with the Soviet Union implemented by President Richard Nixon and continued by President Gerald Ford. Instead, Reagan insisted that the Kms activator for microsoft office 2019 States was a morally superior nation and that the Soviet Union was destined for the ash heap of history. The Soviets had hoped that Reagan’s harsh rhetoric was a campaign tactic and they believed that he would moderate his language and his views once taking office. During his first press conference as president, however, Reagan declared that the Soviet Union reserved “the right to commit any crime, to lie, to cheat” to achieve the global communist revolution. 27
The president’s rhetoric escalated tensions, as did the massive increases in the Pentagon’s budget. In response, Yuri Andropov – the chairman of the KGB – put his agents on high alert. Believing that the United States, under Reagan’s leadership, was actively preparing for nuclear war, the Soviets launched a global intelligence operation RYAN (an acronym for Nuclear Missile Attack in Russian) to collect information about any potential preemptive nuclear strike. 28 Tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States continued to escalate into 1983, which would become known as the year of fear. He did this by announcing the Strategic Defense Initiative, calling the Soviet Union an “evil empire,” and continuing with the deployment of Pershing II missiles to Western Europe (where they would counter the Soviet’s SS-20 missiles).
Two events in 1983 significantly worsened superpower relations and brought the world to the precipice of nuclear war. Ron`s Editor Crack - Crack Key For U first occurred in October 1983 when a Korean airliner, KAL007, was shot down by the Soviets for straying into their airspace. The deaths of all 269 passengers including 63 Americans heightened tensions. The second occurred on November 7, 1983 when the United States and its NATO allies conducted military exercises designed to simulate the use of nuclear weapons. Able Archer, as the exercise was known, included major officials in governments across Western Europe. Although NATO had conducted such tests before, the added realism triggered the Soviet operation RYAN. KGB operatives came to believe that Able Archer was a cover for an American nuclear first strike. As a result, the USSR put all their forces on high alert. Oleg Gordievsky, a KGB agent at the time, recalls that “during Able Archer 83 [the world] had, without realizing it, come frighteningly close – certainly closer than at any time since the Cuban missile crisis of 1962” to reaching “the edge of the nuclear abyss.” 29 Luckily, the exercise ended on November 11, 1983 without nuclear holocaust. Shortly after Able Archer, London sent information that described how the Soviets had believed that Able Archer could be a cover for a first strike by NATO against the USSR. When Reagan got this news, it rattled him. After being briefed, Reagan was “uncharacteristically grave” and asked his national security adviser, Robert “Bud” McFarlane: “Do you suppose they really believe that?” Reagan added, “I don’t see how they could believe that—but it’s something to think about.” 30
As a result of Able Archer and other events of 1983, Reagan decided to alter his foreign policy course in 1984. On January 16, Reagan announced that he was prepared to resume negotiations with the Soviet Union. He labeled 1984 “a year of opportunity for peace” and added that he “was sincere in wanting arms reductions and peace.” 31 Reagan soon realized, however, that he would need a willing partner in the Kremlin to make any progress – he would get just such a partner in 1985 when Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary of the Soviet Union. Together, over the opposition of hard‐liners in both their countries, the two leaders developed a close personal relationship, established trust between the superpowers, and eventually signed the INF treaty which significantly reduced the number of smartdraw download - Crack Key For U weapons in each country’s arsenal. Reagan’s willingness to negotiate with Gorbachev established the foundation upon which a peaceful end to the Cold War would be achieved.
Although Reagan often bemoaned that American soldiers had not been allowed to achieve victory GridinSoft Anti-Malware 4.1.95 Crack With Activatiion Code Free 2021 Vietnam, he was reluctant to get US troops involved in foreign conflicts. Instead, he established the Reagan Doctrine which asserted that the US would provide assistance to those who were resisting communism in their countries. In reality this meant that the CIA would supply arms and money to insurgent “freedom fighters” in places such as Afghanistan, Angola, Ethiopia, and Nicaragua. In each of these cases it could be argued that providing US weapons simply intensified the conflict. 32
The low point of the Reagan presidency came in 1986 when it was reported that the United States had sold weapons to Iran and then funneled some of the funds, in violation of an act of Congress that forbid such sales, to the Contras in Nicaragua. The Iran‐Contra Affair was a dramatic overstep of presidential authority and although it was never proven that Reagan was directly involved it significantly damaged his presidency. Ironically, Reagan had rehabilitated the image of the president following Nixon’s corruption and Carter’s incompetence. Iran‐Contra threatened that rehabilitation.
Reagan Placed High Value on Immigration
Perhaps Reagan’s greatest contribution to our political discourse today was his unflinching belief in immigration as a source of American greatness. Reagan signed comprehensive immigration reform in 1986 that granted almost 3 million people amnesty. 33 In his farewell address, Reagan described the United States as a shining city on a hill: “It was a tall, proud city built on rocks stronger than oceans, windswept, God‐blessed, and teeming with people of all kinds living in harmony and peace; a city with free ports that hummed with commerce and creativity.” Reagan continued that “if there had to be city walls, the walls had doors and the doors were open to anyone with the will and the heart to get here.” 34
Likewise, in his “Brotherhood of Man,” speech, Reagan spoke about his desire to see a world where the people of the globe lived in harmony. Reagan insisted that the US was “the one spot on earth where we have the brotherhood of man.” The former president declared that “if we continue with this proudly, this brotherhood of man [will be] made up from people representative of every corner of the earth, maybe one day boundaries all over the earth will disappear as people cross boundaries and find out that, yes, there is a brotherhood of man in every corner.” 35 In the midst of the Trump presidency it is important to remember that an alternative Republican vision on immigration, trade, and general human flourishing exists. While Reagan’s policies were a mixed bag, he continues to provide timeless rhetoric that elevates the individual above the collective and preaches tolerance rather than exclusion.
What was wrong with the Reagan presidency? Well there was the ballooning debt, the legitimizing of social conservatives, and bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war – if unintentionally – in 1983. But perhaps the worst part about the Reagan presidency is that it has been misremembered, both by the left and the right. Reagan’s true legacy has faded from view and has been replaced by a myth that Reagan was successful because he never compromised his principles. Myths can either be constructive to a society or detrimental. The Reagan myth has driven conservative policy makers to put principle over pragmatism and has led them to make the perfect the enemy of the good. Perhaps a more realistic view of the Reagan years would enable conservatives to stay true to their principles while finding innovative ways to apply them to an ever‐changing world.
1. For a comprehensive study of how conservative perception of Reagan evolved from 1980 to 2016 see my forthcoming book Getting Right with Reagan: The Struggle for True Conservatism, 1980–2016 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2019). Many of the themes discussed in this chapter are fully developed there.
2. Manuel Klausner, “Inside Ronald Reagan,” Reason, July telecharger photofiltre studio x crack - Crack Key For U. https://reason.com/archives/1975/07/01/inside-ronald-reagan/5.
3. Manuel Klausner, “Inside Ronald Reagan,” Reason, July 1975. https://reason.com/archives/1975/07/01/inside-ronald-reagan/5.
4. For a complete study of the role of Reagan’s faith see Mary Beth Brown’s The Faith of Ronald Reagan (New York: Thomas Nelson, 2011) and Paul Kengor’s God and Ronald Reagan: A Spiritual Life (New York: HarperCollins, 2005).
5. “After Low‐Key Campaigns, Comeback Seen for Gay Rights,” Washington Post, October 27, 1978, A5.
6. “Briggs to Try Antigay Move Again in 1980: Says Reagan’s Stand Against Proposition 6 Turned Polls Around,” Los Angeles Times, November 9, 1978, B21; “Battle is Not Over, Briggs Vows to Prop.6 Supporters,” Los Angeles Times, November 8, 1978, OC_A1.
7. Daniel K. Williams, God’s Own Party: The Making of the Christian Right (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
8. “Defeat of School Prayer Ends New Right Crusade,” Chicago Tribune, September 24, 1982.
9. For a detailed account of Reagan’s role in advancing the New Right agenda through the appointment of federal judges, consult David O’Brien’s chapter “Federal Judgeships in Retrospect” in The Reagan Presidency, 327–353.
10. One major policy undertaken by Reagan that is generally ignored was his insistence on removing regulations that prohibited AIDS victims from using experimental drugs. For an in‐depth analysis of how the Reagan administration did address the AIDS crisis, see Peter W. Huber’s “Ronald Reagan’s Quiet War on AIDS: His FDA Accelerated the Delivery of Lifesaving Drugs – Providing a Template for Fighting Devastating Illnesses Today,” City Journal, Autumn 2016. https://www.city-journal.org/html/ronald-reagans-quiet-war-aids-14783.h….
11. C. Everett Koop, Koop: The Memoirs of America’s Family Doctor (New York: Random House, 1991).
12. Ibid., 201–202.
13. “Remarks by the President to the American Foundation for AIDS Research Awards Dinner,” (Potomac Restaurant, Washington, DC), May 31, 1987. folder “AIDS (1),” box OA 17989, Webber Hildred Files, Ronald Reagan Library.
14. “Nancy Reagan and the Negative Impact of the ‘Just Say No’ Anti‐drug Campaign,” Guardian, March 8, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/mar/08/nancy-reagan-drugs-just-say-no-dare-program-opioid-epidemic.
15. John B. Taylor argues that while Volcker deserves credit for getting inflation under control, Reagan deserves to be lauded for not interfering with policies at the Federal Reserve. John B. Taylor, “Changes in American Economic Policy in the 1980s: Watershed or Pendulum Swing?” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 33, No. 2 (June 1995), 777–784. Volcker also gave Reagan credit for not interfering with his tight monetary policy in his memoirs. Paul Volcker and Toyoo Gyohten, Changing Fortunes: The World’s Money and the Threat of Sony vegas pro 18 full crack Leadership (New York: Random House, 1992), 175.
16. “Both Houses Give Reagan a 3‑Year Tax Cut Victory,” Atlanta Constitution, July 30, 1981, 1A.
17. “No Shrinking Supply‐Sider: Economist Arthur Laffer Keeps the Faith,” Barron’s, December 21, 1981.
18. David Stockman, The Triumph of Politics: How the Reagan Revolution Failed (New York: Harper & Row, 1986), 12.
19. “Reagan Moves to Quell Conservatives’ Tax Revolt,” The Washington Post, August 6, 1982, A1.
20. For the best account of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 consult Jeffrey Birnbaum, Showdown at Gucci Gulch: Lawmakers, Lobbyists, and the Unlikely Triumph of Tax Reform (New York: Vintage, 1988).
21. Ronald Reagan, “Farewell Address at the Republican National Convention,” August 15, 1988. http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/speech-5469.
22. “US Debt by President by Dollar and Percentage: Who Increased U.S. Debt the Most? Depends on How You Measure It,” The Balance, March 14, 2019. https://www.thebalance.com/us-debt-by-president-by-dollar-and-percent-3306296.
23. Marcus Witcher, Getting Right with Reagan: The Struggle for True Conservatism. (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, forthcoming).
24. “Pension Changes Signed Into Law,” New York Times, April 20, 1983, A1.
25. For more on how Reagan altered the American political discourse see Daniel T. Rodgers, Age of Fracture (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2012).
26. Margaret Thatcher, “Eulogy for President Reagan,” June 11, 2004. http://margaretthatcher.org/speeches/displaydocument.asp?docid=110360.
27. “Reagan Rips Russ Leaders,” Chicago Tribune, January 20. 1981.
28. Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside Story (New York: Harper Perennial, 1990), 583.
29. Andrew and Gordievsky, KGB, 605.
30. Don Oberdorfer, The Turn: From the Cold War to a New Era, (New York: Poseidon Press, 1991), 67.
31. George Shultz, Turmoil and Triumph: Diplomacy, Power, and the Victory of the American Ideal (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993, 377.
32. For a detailed description of the Reagan Doctrine see see James M. Scott, Deciding to Intervene: The Reagan Doctrine and American Foreign Policy (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996).
33. “A Reagan Legacy: Amnesty for Illegal Immigrants,” NPR, July 10, 2010. https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128303672.
34. Ronald Reagan, “Farewell Address,” January 11, 1989. http://millercenter.org/president/Reagan/ speeches/speech‐3418.
35. Ronald Reagan, “The Brotherhood of Man,” November 19, 1990. http://pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/
Check out Dr. Witcher’s, Getting Right with Reagan: The Struggle for True Conservatism, 1980–2016, here.