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WordPress security is a topic of huge importance for every website owner. Google blacklists around 10,000+ websites every day for malware and around 50,000 for phishing every week.

If you are serious about your website, then you need to pay attention to the WordPress security best practices. In this guide, we will share all the top WordPress security tips to help you protect your website against hackers and malware.

Complete WordPress security guide

While WordPress core software is very secure, and it’s audited regularly by hundreds of developers, there is a lot that can be done to keep your site secure.

At WPBeginner, we believe that security is not just directory tree list maker - Free Activators risk elimination. It’s also about risk reduction. As a website owner, there’s a lot that you can do to improve your WordPress security (even if you’re not tech savvy).

We have a number of actionable steps that you can take to protect your website against security vulnerabilities.

To make it easy, we have created a table of content to help you easily navigate through our ultimate WordPress security guide.

Table of Contents

Basics of WordPress Security

WordPress Security in Easy Steps (No Coding)

WordPress Security for DIY Users

Ready? Let’s get started.

Why Website Security is Important?

A hacked WordPress site can cause serious damage to your business revenue and reputation. Hackers can steal user information, passwords, install malicious software, and can even distribute malware to your users.

Worst, you may find yourself pandora recovery key - Free Activators ransomware to hackers just to regain access to your website.

Why WordPress security is important

In March 2016, Google reported that more than 50 million website users have been warned about a website they’re visiting may contain malware or steal information.

Furthermore, Google blacklists around 20,000 websites for malware and around 50,000 for phishing each week.

If your website is a business, then you need to pay extra attention to your WordPress security.

Similar to how it’s the business owners responsibility to protect their physical store building, as an online business owner it is your responsibility to protect your business website.

[Back to Top ↑]

Keeping WordPress Updated

Keeping WordPress updated

WordPress is an open source software which is regularly maintained and updated. By default, WordPress automatically installs minor updates. For major releases, you need to manually initiate the update.

WordPress also comes with thousands of plugins and themes that you can install on your website. These plugins and themes are maintained by third-party developers which regularly release updates as well.

These WordPress updates are crucial for the security and stability of your WordPress site. You need to make sure that your WordPress core, plugins, and theme are up to date.

[Back to Top ↑]

Strong Passwords and User Permissions

Manage strong passwords

The most common WordPress hacking attempts use stolen passwords. You can make that difficult by using stronger passwords that are unique for your website. Not just for WordPress admin area, but also for FTP accounts, database, WordPress hosting account, k lite mega codec pack free download - Crack Key For U your custom email addresses which use your site’s domain name.

Many beginners don’t like using strong passwords because they’re hard to remember. The good thing is that you don’t need to remember passwords anymore. You can use a password manager. See our guide on how to manage WordPress passwords.

Another way to reduce the risk is to not give anyone access to your WordPress admin account unless you absolutely have to. If you have a large team or guest authors, then make sure that you understand user roles and capabilities in WordPress before you add new user accounts and authors to your WordPress site.

[Back to Top ↑]

The Role of WordPress Hosting

Your WordPress hosting service plays the most important role in the security of your WordPress site. A good shared hosting provider bandicam crack reddit - Activators Patch Bluehost or Siteground take the extra measures to protect their servers against common threats.

Here is how a good web hosting company works in the background to protect your websites and data.

  • They continuously monitor their network for suspicious activity.
  • All good hosting companies have tools in place to prevent large scale DDOS attacks
  • They keep their server software, php versions, and hardware up to date to prevent hackers from exploiting a known security vulnerability in an old version.
  • They have ready to deploy disaster recovery and accidents plans which allows them to protect your data in case of major accident.

On a shared hosting plan, you share the server resources with many other customers. This opens the risk of cross-site contamination where a hacker can use a neighboring site to attack your website.

Using a managed WordPress hosting service provides a more secure platform for your website. Managed WordPress hosting companies offer automatic backups, automatic WordPress updates, and more advanced security configurations to protect your website

We recommend WPEngine as our preferred managed WordPress hosting provider. They’re also the most popular one in the industry. (See our special WPEngine coupon).

You can also try Liquid Web which is a good alternative for WP Engine.

[Back to Top ↑]

WordPress Security in Easy Steps (No Coding)

We know that improving WordPress security can be a terrifying thought for beginners. Especially if you’re not techy. Guess what – you’re not alone.

We have helped thousands of WordPress users in hardening their WordPress security.

We will show you how you can improve your WordPress security with just a few clicks (no coding required).

If you can point-and-click, you can do this!

Install a WordPress Backup Solution

Install a WordPress backup solution

Backups are your first defense against any WordPress attack. Remember, nothing is 100% secure. If government websites can be hacked, then so can yours.

Backups allow you to quickly restore your WordPress site in case something bad was to happen.

There are many free and paid WordPress backup plugins that you can use. The most important thing you need to know when it comes to backups is that you must regularly save full-site backups to a remote location (not your hosting account).

We recommend storing it on a cloud service like Amazon, Dropbox, or private clouds like Stash.

Based on how frequently you update your website, the ideal setting might be either once a day or real-time backups.

Thankfully this can be easily done by using plugins like UpdraftPlus or BlogVault. They are both reliable and most importantly easy to use (no coding needed).

[Back to Top ↑]

Best WordPress Security Plugin

After backups, the next thing we need to do is setup an auditing and monitoring system that keeps track of everything that happens on your website.

This includes file integrity monitoring, failed login attempts, malware scanning, etc.

Thankfully, this can be all taken care by the best free WordPress security plugin, Sucuri Scanner.

You need to install and activate the free Sucuri Security plugin. For more details, please see our step by step guide on how to install a WordPress plugin.

Upon activation, you need to go to the Sucuri menu in your WordPress admin. The first thing you will be asked to do is Directory tree list maker - Free Activators a free API key. This enables audit logging, integrity checking, email alerts, and other important features.

Generate Sucuri API Key

The next thing, you need to do is click on the ‘Hardening’ tab from the settings menu. Go through every option and click on the “Apply Hardening” button.

Sucuri security hardening

These options help you lock down the key areas that hackers often use in their attacks. The only hardening option that’s a paid upgrade is the Web Application Firewall which we will explain in the next step, so skip it for now.

We have also covered a lot of these “Hardening” options later in this article for those who want to do it without using a plugin or the ones that require additional steps such as “Database Prefix change” or “Changing the Admin Username”.

After the hardening part, the default plugin settings are good enough for most websites and don’t need any changes. The only thing we recommend customizing is ‘Email Alerts’.

The default alert settings can clutter your inbox with emails. We recommend receiving alerts for key actions like changes in plugins, new user registration, etc. You can configure the alerts by going to Sucuri Settings » Alerts.

Set up security email alerts

This WordPress security plugin is very powerful, so browse through all the tabs and settings to see all that it does such as Malware scanning, Audit logs, Failed Login Attempt tracking, etc.

Enable Web Application Firewall (WAF)

The easiest way to protect your site and be confident about your WordPress security is by using a web application firewall (WAF).

A website firewall blocks all malicious traffic before it even reaches your website.

DNS Level Website Firewall – These firewall route your website traffic through their cloud proxy servers. This allows them to only send genuine traffic to your web server.

Application Level Firewall – These firewall plugins examine the traffic once it reaches your server but before loading most WordPress scripts. This method is not as efficient as the DNS level firewall in reducing the server load.

To learn more, see our list of the best WordPress firewall plugins.

Sucuri WAF

We use and recommendSucuri as the best web-application firewall for WordPress. You can read about how Sucuri helped us block 450,000 WordPress attacks in a month.

Attacks blocked by Sucuri

The best part about Sucuri’s firewall is that it also comes with a malware cleanup and blacklist removal guarantee. Basically if you were to be hacked under their watch, they guarantee that they will fix your website (no matter how many pages you have).

This is a pretty strong warranty because repairing hacked websites is expensive. Security experts normally charge $250 per hour. Whereas you can get the entire Sucuri security stack for $199 per year.

Improve your WordPress Security with the Sucuri Firewall »

Sucuri is not the only DNS level firewall provider out there. The other popular competitor is Cloudflare. See our comparison of Sucuri vs Cloudflare (Pros and Cons).

[Back to Top ↑]

Move Your WordPress Site to SSL/HTTPS

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a protocol which encrypts data transfer directory tree list maker - Free Activators your website and users browser. This encryption makes it harder for someone to sniff around and steal information.

How SSL works

Once you enable SSL, your website will use HTTPS instead of HTTP, you will also see a padlock sign next to your website address in the browser.

SSL certificates were typically issued by certificate authorities, and their prices start from $80 to hundreds of dollars each year. Due to added cost, most website owners opted to keep using the insecure protocol.

To fix this, a non-profit organization called Let’s Encrypt decided to offer free SSL Certificates to website owners. Their project is supported by Google Chrome, Facebook, Mozilla, and many more companies.

Now, it is easier than ever to start using SSL for all your WordPress websites. Many hosting companies are now offering a free SSL certificate for your WordPress website.

If your hosting company does not offer one, then you can purchase one from Domain.com. They have the best and most reliable SSL deal in the market. It comes with a $10,000 security warranty and a TrustLogo security seal.

WordPress Security for DIY Users

If you do everything that we have mentioned thus far, then you’re in a pretty good shape.

But as always, there’s more that you can do to harden your WordPress security.

Some of these steps may require coding knowledge.

Change the Default “admin” username

In the old days, the default WordPress admin username was “admin”. Since usernames make up half of login credentials, this made it easier for hackers to do brute-force attacks.

Thankfully, WordPress has since changed this and now requires you to select a custom username at the time of installing WordPress.

However, some 1-click WordPress installers, still set the default admin username to “admin”. If you notice that to be the case, then it’s probably a good idea to switch your web hosting.

Since WordPress doesn’t allow you to change usernames by default, there are three methods you can use to change the username.

  1. Create a new admin username and delete the old one.
  2. Use the Username Changer plugin
  3. Update username from phpMyAdmin

We have covered all three of these in our detailed guide on how to properly change your WordPress username (step by step).

Note: We’re talking about the username called “admin”, not the administrator role.

[Back to Top ↑]

Disable File Editing

WordPress comes with a built-in code editor which allows you to edit your theme and plugin files right from your WordPress admin area. In the wrong hands, this feature can be a security risk which is why we recommend turning it off.

Disable file editing in WordPress

You can easily do this by adding the following code in your wp-config.php file.

// Disallow file edit define( 'DISALLOW_FILE_EDIT', true );

Alternatively, you can do this with 1-click using the Hardening feature in the free Sucuri plugin that we mentioned above.

[Back to Top ↑]

Disable PHP File Execution in Certain WordPress Directories

Another way to harden your WordPress security is by disabling PHP file execution in directories where it’s not needed such as /wp-content/uploads/.

You can do this by opening a text editor like Notepad and paste this code:

<Files *.php> deny from all </Files>

Next, you need to save this file as .htaccess and upload it to /wp-content/uploads/ folders on your website using an FTP client.

For more detailed explanation, see our guide on how to disable PHP execution in certain WordPress directories

Alternatively, you can do this with 1-click using the Hardening feature in the free Sucuri plugin that we mentioned above.

[Back to Top ↑]

Limit Login Attempts

By default, WordPress allows users to try to login as many time as they want. This leaves your WordPress site vulnerable to brute force attacks. Hackers try to crack passwords by trying to login with different combinations.

This can be easily fixed by limiting the failed login attempts a user can make. If you’re using the web application firewall mentioned earlier, then this is automatically taken care of.

However, if you don’t have the firewall setup, then proceed with the steps below.

First, you need to install and activate the Login LockDown plugin. For more details, see our step by step guide on how to install a WordPress plugin.

Upon activation, visit Settings » Login LockDown page to setup the plugin.

Login Lockdown options

For detailed instructions, take a look at our guide on how and why you should limit login attempts in WordPress.

[Back to Top ↑]

Add Two Factor Authentication

Two-factor authentication technique requires users to log in by using a two-step authentication method. The first one is the username and password, and the second step requires you to authenticate using a separate device or app.

Most top online websites like Google, Facebook, Twitter, allow you to enable it for your accounts. You can also add the same functionality to your WordPress site.

First, you need to install and activate the Two Factor Authentication plugin. Upon activation, you need to click on the ‘Two Factor Auth’ link in WordPress admin sidebar.

Two Factor Authenticator directory tree list maker - Free Activators width=

Next, you need to install and open an authenticator app on your phone. There are several of them available like Google Authenticator, Authy, and LastPass Authenticator.

We recommend using LastPass Authenticator or Authy because they both allow you to back up your accounts to the cloud. This is very useful in case your phone is lost, reset, or you buy a new phone. All your account logins will be easily restored.

We will be using the LastPass Authenticator for the tutorial. However, instructions are similar for all auth apps. Open your authenticator app, and then click on the Add button.

Add website

You will be asked if you’d like to scan a site manually or scan the bar code. Select the scan bar code option and then point your phone’s camera on the QRcode shown on the plugin’s settings page.

That’s all, your authentication app will now save it. Next time you log in to your website, you will be asked for the two-factor auth code after you enter your password.

Enter your two-factor auth code

Simply open the authenticator app on your phone and enter the code you see on it.

[Back to Top ↑]

Change WordPress Database Prefix

By default, WordPress uses wp_ as the prefix for all tables in your WordPress database. If your WordPress site is using the default database prefix, then it makes it easier for hackers to guess what your table name is. This is why we recommend changing it.

You can change your database prefix by following our step by step tutorial on how to change WordPress database prefix to improve security.

Note: This can break your site if it’s not done properly. Only proceed, if you feel comfortable with your coding skills.

[Back to Top ↑]

Password Protect WordPress Admin and Login Page

directory tree list maker - Free Activators alt="Password protect WordPress admin area" width="550" height="282">

Normally, hackers can request your wp-admin folder and login page without any restriction. This allows them to try their hacking tricks or run DDoS attacks.

You can add additional password protection on a server-side level, which will effectively block those requests.

Follow our step-by-step instructions on how to password protect your WordPress admin (wp-admin) directory.

[Back to Top ↑]

Disable Directory Indexing and Browsing

Disable directory browsing

Directory browsing can be used by hackers to find out if you have any files with known vulnerabilities, so they can take advantage of these files to gain access.

Directory browsing can also be used by other people to look into your files, copy images, find out your directory structure, and other information. This is why it is highly recommended that you turn off directory indexing and browsing.

You directory tree list maker - Free Activators to connect to your website using FTP or cPanel’s file manager. Next, locate the .htaccess file in your website’s root directory. If you cannot see it there, then refer to our directory tree list maker - Free Activators on why you can’t see .htaccess file in WordPress.

After that, you need to add the following line at the end of the .htaccess file:

Don’t forget to save and upload .htaccess file back to your site. For more on this topic, see our article on how to disable directory browsing in WordPress.

[Back to Top ↑]

Disable XML-RPC in WordPress

XML-RPC was enabled by default in WordPress 3.5 because it helps connecting your WordPress site with web and mobile apps.

Because of its powerful nature, XML-RPC can significantly amplify the brute-force attacks.

For example, traditionally if a hacker wanted to try 500 different passwords on your website, they would have to make 500 separate login attempts which will be caught and blocked by the login lockdown plugin.

But with XML-RPC, a hacker can use the system.multicall function to try thousands of password with say 20 or 50 requests.

This is why if you’re not using XML-RPC, then we recommend that you disable it.

There are 3 ways to disable XML-RPC in WordPress, and we have covered all of them in our step by step tutorial on how to disable XML-RPC in WordPress.

Tip: The .htaccess method is the best one because it’s the least resource intensive.

If you’re using the web-application firewall mentioned earlier, then this can be taken care of by the firewall.

[Back to Top ↑]

Automatically log out Idle Users in WordPress

Logged in users can sometimes wander away from screen, and this poses a security risk. Someone can hijack their session, change passwords, or make changes to their account.

This is why many banking and financial sites automatically log out an inactive user. You can implement similar functionality on your WordPress site as well.

You will need to install and activate the Inactive Logout plugin. Upon activation, visit Settings » Inactive Logout page to configure plugin settings.

Logout idle users

Simply set the time duration and add a logout message. Don’t forget to click on the save changes button to store your settings.

[Back to Top ↑]

Add Security Questions to WordPress Login Screen

Add security question on login screen

Adding a security question to your WordPress login screen makes it even harder for someone to get unauthorized access.

You can add security questions by installing the WP Security Questions plugin. Upon activation, you need to visit Settings » Security Questions page to configure the plugin settings.

For more detailed instructions, see our tutorial on how to add security questions to WordPress login screen.

[Back to Top ↑]

Scanning WordPress for Malware and Vulnerabilies

Malware scanning

If you have a WordPress security plugin installed, then those plugins will routinely check for malware and signs of security breaches.

However, if you see a sudden drop in website traffic or search rankings, directory tree list maker - Free Activators you may want to manually run a scan. You can use your WordPress security plugin, or use one of these malware and security scanners.

Running these online scans is quite straight forward, you just enter your website URLs and their crawlers go through your website to look for known malware and malicious code.

Now keep in mind that most WordPress security scanners can just scan your website. They cannot remove the malware or clean a hacked WordPress site.

This brings us to the next section, cleaning up malware and hacked WordPress sites.

[Back to Top ↑]

Fixing a Hacked WordPress Site

Many WordPress users don’t realize the importance of backups and website security until their website is hacked.

Cleaning up a WordPress site can be very difficult and time consuming. Our first advice would be to let a professional take care of it.

Hackers install backdoors on affected sites, and if these backdoors are not fixed properly, then your website will likely get hacked again.

Allowing a professional security company like Sucuri to fix your website will ensure that your site is safe to use again. It will also protect you against any future attacks.

For the adventurous and DIY users, we have compiled a step by step guide on fixing a hacked WordPress site.

[Back to Top ↑]

That’s all, we hope this article helped you learn the top WordPress security best practices as well as discover the best WordPress security plugins for your website.

If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our YouTube Channel for WordPress video tutorials. You can also find us on Twitter and Facebook.

About directory tree list maker - Free Activators Editorial Staff

Editorial Staff at WPBeginner is a team of WordPress experts led by Syed Balkhi. Trusted by over 1.3 million readers worldwide.

Источник: https://www.wpbeginner.com/wordpress-security/
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What is the best free SD card recovery software? On this page, you can learn the top 5 SD memory card software. These are all the recovery programs that can help you restore lost data from SD card devices. Check out the 5 best SD card recovery software below:

1. Recoverit Free Data Recovery

Recoverit Free Data Recovery is a reliable SD card recovery tool that gives you a full chance of getting your deleted/lost data back. It supports the restoration of files that were damaged by viruses, power failures, accidental delectation, and format. Whatever your initial causes are, Recoverit Data Recovery is guaranteed to recover files from the SD card. You can use it to recover all types of data. If you want to recover deleted photos from SD card free or other file types, including music, PDF files, video, etc., you can gain support from this free SD card recovery software as well.

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    Registration free activation of native COM (activex) component from .NET

    I have a native dll (which is an activex control) that I need use with my .NET application without having to register the dll in the registry.

    I have read several in depth posts about registration free activation, some of the better ones are

    A lengthy one from Steve White and Leslie Muller

    This one from samuel jack

    And another from Mike Makarov

    and from what I can see it is possible. However several hours and hundreds of tests later I just cant get it to work. I've done a bit of PInvoking and even less with ActiveX controls in .NET in my career, so would appreciate any input from anyone whom might have kicked goals on this before.

    So far I'm following Steves advice, in terms of building an application that works and then trying to formulate the winning manifest file syntax via repeatedly running the regsvr32 command to add and remove the unmanaged dll's from the registry. Just a bog simple .Net console application with about 10 lines of code.

    One part that I am confused about is the interop. The native dll's I have are also accompanied with managed runtime callable wrappers (RCW's). In my .NET application I add reference to these RCW's and then can consume the respective classes and functionality provided for by the unmanaged dll's. I'm not PInvoking via .

    In creating the manifest files I'm unsure if I need to worry about these RCW's and how they work in a registration free scenario, or even if if they need to be in the compiled output?

    I've also tried several tools such as (OLE/COM object viewer, Mt.exe from the windows sdk, and regsvr42 from codeproject). But the manifest structure and necessary GUID's all vary between tools and posts.

    Current status is that I receive a "Unable to cast COM object of type System.__ComObject to interface type MyFunkyDllLib.FunkyDllControl. This operation failed because the QueryInterface call on the COM component for the interface with IID '{some guid}' failed due to the following error: Library not registered.

    Can anyone confirm the correct syntax for the application and dll manifest files ? Online posts even vary on the name with some using sxs in the name.

    Update1: Whilst Joe's answer below did not work it did give me some better insights into reg free COM. In the properties of the Interop dll (the one that that is added to the project reference from the list of installed COM components on the dev machine) I changed the Isolated Property to True. This has the effect of making VS dump a copy of the COM dll (not the interop, it is embeded in the exe) to the bin\debug folder. VS also then creates a myapplication.exe.manifest.

    In this manifest file is supposedly sufficent information for reg free com. I found other posts indicating success with this method but in my case I still ended up with the same .

    Reading over Samuel Jacks post again, I tried his method of creating both a manifest for the exe and the COM dll using the clsid information from the VStudio output manifest when. (I also deleted the section created by VS from the exe.manifest). After unregistering the COM from the registry I now have success ! The application starts and does not error. Why this approach works and not the I have no idea because it is beyond my knowledge of manifests and assemblies.

    However we are still not at the wizards castle yet Toto.

    Now I'm back at the same issue I posted on this SO thread. However in this scenario unit tests are not involved. Just a plain console application with 10 lines of code. Works fine when in normal registered COM mode, but not in reg free mode.

    Источник: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/40202460/registration-free-activation-of-native-com-activex-component-from-net

    Installing the Unity Hub

    Adding modules to the Unity Editor

    The Unity Hub is a management tool that you can use to manage all of your Unity Projects and directory tree list maker - Free Activators. Use the Hub to manage multiple installations of the Unity Editor along with their associated components, create new Projects, and open existing Projects.

    To install the Unity Hub for Windows, macOS, and Linux visit Download Unity on the Unity website.

    Unity officially supports the following Linux distributions:

    • Ubuntu 16.04
    • Ubuntu 18.04
    • CentOS 7

    Note: If Unity Hub fails to launch while you are using Linux, you might need to give UnityHub.AppImage executable permissions. To do this:

    1. Open your terminal.
    2. Go to the directory where UnityHub.AppImage is. This will be the Unity Hub directory.
    3. Run .

    To install and use the Unity Editor, you must have a Unity Developer Network (UDN) account. If you already have an account, sign in, choose your licenses type, and proceed to the Installing the Unity Editor section.

    If you do not have an account, follow the prompts to create one. You can choose to create a Unity ID or use one of the social sign-ins. For more information on accounts and subscriptions, see Unity Organizations.

    Installing the Unity Editor

    To install the Editor:

    1. Click the Installs tab. The default install locations are:

      Windows:

      Mac:

      Linux:

      Note: If you want to change the default installation location, follow these steps:

      1. From the top right corner of the Hub window, click the Gear icon.

      2. In the Editor Folder Location dialog box, enter the new installation location and click Done.

    2. Click the Add button and select a specific version of the Editor.

      Hub install screen
    3. Click the Next button and select the modules you want to install with the Editor. If you don’t install a component now, you can add it later if you need to. When you’ve selected all the modules you need, click Done.

      Modules install

    If you are installing multiple Editor versions, the first installation starts as soon as the download is complete. Other selected versions download simultaneously and queue to start when the current installation finishes.

    The Hub displays the installation location of each Editor under the corresponding version label.

    To add modules to an Editor, locate its files, or uninstall it, click the three dots next to that Editor version.

    Modifying an existing Editor install

    Adding existing instances of the Editor to the Hub

    You can add instances of the Editor to the Hub that you installed outside of the Hub.

    1. Click the Installs tab.

    2. Click the Locate button to find existing installations of the Editor.

    3. In the file dialog, navigate to the location of the Editor installation and select the Unity executable. On MacOS this is Unity.app. On Windows this is Unity.exe.

      On Windows, the typical location of the Unity.exe is:

      Or

      On macOS, the typical location of the Unity.app is:

      On Linux, the typical location of the Unity executable file is:

    4. Click the Select Editor button.

    To remove the Editor from the Hub, click the three dots next to the Editor version. Removing an Editor that you added in this manner does not uninstall it or modify it in any way.

    Troubleshooting for Linux

    If Unity fails to start, you might need to install a missing dependency
    See in Glossary. On Ubuntu-based distributions, use:

    On CentOS, you might need to install the dependency. Use:

    Support for Editor versions prior to 2017.1

    Sign-in status is not shared for pre–2017.1 versions of the Editor opened through the Hub. Performing tasks such as Manage License, Open Project, Create Project, and Sign in opens the Unity Launcher instead of the Hub.

    If you attempt to use the Unity Hub to open an Editor version 5 or earlier and you do not have an appropriate license file, the Editor will hang on the splash screen.

    To avoid this issue, run the Editor directly, external to the Unity Hub, and the Editor will load correctly even if the license file is not detected.

    Using the Unity Installer to install the Unity Editor

    The Unity installer is a small executable program (approximately 1 MB in size) that lets you select which components of the Unity Editor you want to download and install.

    To install previous versions of the Unity Editor using the Installer, visit the Unity download archive. The archive page provides Unity Installer download links for all released versions of the Editor.

    For additional information on installing the Editor using the Installer, see the 2018.3 version of the Unity Manual.


    • Hub design updated in Unity 2019.1NewIn20191
    • Linux now available from the Hub in Unity 2019.1 onwards

    Adding modules to the Unity Editor

    Источник: https://docs.unity3d.com/Manual/GettingStartedInstallingHub.html

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      List of Command Prompt Commands

      CommandDescriptionAppendThe append command can be used by programs to open files in another directory as if they were located in the current directory. The append command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The append command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows.ArpThe arp command is used to display or change entries in the ARP cache. The arp command is available in all versions of Windows.AssocThe assoc command is used to display or change the file type associated with a particular file extension. The assoc command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.AtThe at command is used to schedule commands and other programs to run at a specific date and time. The at command is available in Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. Beginning in Windows 8, command line task scheduling should instead be completed with the schtasks command.AtmadmThe atmadm command is used to display information related to asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) connections on the system. The atmadm command is available in Windows XP. Support for ATM was removed beginning in Windows Vista, making the atmadm command unnecessary.AttribThe attrib command is used to change the attributes of a single file or a directory. The attrib command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.AuditpolThe auditpol command is used to display or change audit policies. The auditpol command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.BcdbootThe bcdboot command is used to copy boot files to the system partition and to create a new system BCD store. The bcdboot command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7.BcdeditThe bcdedit command is used to view or make changes to Boot Configuration Data. The bcdedit command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista. The bcdedit command replaced the bootcfg command beginning in Windows Vista.BdehdcfgThe bdehdcfg command is used to prepare a hard drive for BitLocker Drive Encryption. The bdehdcfg command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7.BitsadminThe bitsadmin command is used to create, manage, and monitor download and upload jobs. The bitsadmin command is available in Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista. While the bitsadmin command is available in both Windows 8 and Windows 7, it is being phased out. The BITS PowerShell cmdlets should be used instead.BootcfgThe bootcfg command is used to build, modify, or view the contents of the boot.ini file, a hidden file that is used to identify in what folder, on which partition, and on which hard drive Windows is located. The bootcfg command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The bootcfg command was replaced by the bcdedit command beginning in Windows Vista. Bootcfg is still available in Windows 10, 8, 7, and Vista, but it serves no real value since boot.ini is not used in these operating systems.BootsectThe bootsect command is used to configure the master boot code to one compatible with BOOTMGR (Vista and later) or NTLDR (XP and earlier). The bootsect command is available in Windows 10 and Windows 8. The bootsect command is also available in Windows 7 and Windows Vista but only from the Command Prompt available in System Recovery Options.BreakThe break command sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking on DOS systems. The break command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS. The break command is available in Windows XP and later versions of Windows to provide compatibility with MS-DOS files but it has no effect in Windows itself.CaclsThe cacls command is used to display or change access control lists of files. The cacls command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The cacls command is being phased out in favor of the icacls command, which should be used instead in all versions of Windows after Windows XP.CallThe call command is used to run a script or batch program from within another script or batch program. The call command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS. The call command has no effect outside of a script or batch file. In other words, running the call command at the Command Prompt or MS-DOS prompt will do nothing.CdThe cd command is the shorthand version of the chdir command. The cd command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.CertreqThe certreq command is used to perform various certification authority (CA) certificate functions. The certreq command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.CertutilThe certutil command is used to dump and display certification authority (CA) configuration information in addition to other CA functions. The certutil command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.ChangeThe change command changes various terminal server settings like install modes, COM port mappings, and logons. The change command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.ChcpThe chcp command displays or configures the active code page number. The chcp command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.ChdirThe chdir command is used to display the drive letter and folder that you are currently in. Chdir can also be used to change the drive and/or directory that you want to work in. The chdir command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.ChecknetisolationThe checknetisolation command is used to test apps that require network capabilities. The checknetisolation command is available in Windows 10 and Windows 8.ChglogonThe chglogon command enables, disables, or drains terminal server session logins. The chglogon command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista. Executing the chglogon command is the same as executing change logon.ChgportThe chgport command can be used to display or change COM port mappings for DOS compatibility. The chgport command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista. Executing the chgport command is the same as executing change port.ChgusrThe chgusr command is used to change the install mode for the terminal server. The chgusr command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista. Executing the chgusr command is the same as executing change user.ChkdskThe chkdsk command, often referred to as check disk, is used to identify and correct certain hard drive errors. The chkdsk command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.ChkntfsThe chkntfs command is used to configure or display the checking of the disk drive during the Windows boot process. The chkntfs command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.ChoiceThe choice command is used within a script or batch program to provide a list of choices and return the value of that choice to the program. The choice command is available in MS-DOS and all versions of Windows except Windows XP. Use the set command with the /p switch in place of the choice command in batch files and scripts that you plan to use in Windows XP.CipherThe cipher command shows or changes the encryption status of files and folders on NTFS partitions. The cipher command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.ClipThe clip command is used to redirect the output from any command to the clipboard in Windows. The clip command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.ClsThe cls command clears the screen of all previously entered commands and other text. The cls command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.CmdThe cmd command starts a new instance of the cmd.exe command interpreter. The cmd command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.CmdkeyThe cmdkey command is used to show, create, and remove stored user names and passwords. The cmdkey command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.CmstpThe cmstp command installs or uninstalls a Connection Manager service profile. The cmstp command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.ColorThe color command is used to change the colors of the text and background within the Command Prompt window. The color command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.CommandThe command command starts a new instance of the command.com command interpreter. The command command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The command command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows.CompThe comp command is used to compare the contents of two files or sets of files. The comp command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.CompactThe compact command is used to show or change the compression state of files and directories on NTFS partitions. The compact command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.ConvertThe convert command is used to convert FAT or FAT32 formatted volumes to the NTFS format. The convert command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.CopyThe copy command does simply that — it copies one or more files from one location to another. The copy command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS. The xcopy command is considered to be a more "powerful" version of the copy command.CscriptThe cscript command is used to execute scripts via Microsoft Script Host. The cscript command is available in all versions of Windows. The cscript command is most popularly used to manage printers from the command line using scripts like prncnfg.vbs, prndrvr.vbs, prnmngr.vbs, and others.CttyThe ctty command is used to change the default input and output devices for the system. The ctty command is available in Windows 98 and 95 as well as in MS-DOS. The functions provided by the ctty command were no longer necessary beginning in Windows XP because the command.com interpreter (MS-DOS) is no longer the default command line interpreter.DateThe date command is used to show or change the current date. The date command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.DblspaceThe dblspace command is used to create or configure DoubleSpace compressed drives. The dblspace command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. DriveSpace, executed using the drvspace command, is an updated version of DoubleSpace. Windows began handling compression beginning in Windows XP.DebugThe debug command starts Debug, a command line application used to test and edit programs. The debug command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The debug command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows.DefragThe defrag command is used to defragment a drive you specify. The defrag command is the command line version of Microsoft's Disk Defragmenter. The defrag command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.DelThe del command is used to delete one or more files. The del command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS. The del command is the same as the erase command.DeltreeThe deltree command is used to delete a directory and all the files and subdirectories within it. The deltree command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. Beginning in Windows XP, a folder and its files and subfolders can be removed using the /s function of the rmdir command. Deltree was no longer needed with this new rmdir ability so the command was removed.DiantzThe diantz command is used to losslessly compress one or more files. The diantz command is sometimes called Cabinet Maker. The diantz command is available in Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The diantz command is the same as the makecab command.DirThe dir command is used to display a list of files and folders contained inside the folder that you are currently working in. The dir command also displays other important information like the hard drive's serial number, the total number of files listed, their combined size, the total amount of free space left on the drive, and more. The dir command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.DiskcompThe diskcomp command is used to compare the contents of two floppy disks. The diskcomp command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS, with the exclusion of Windows 10.DiskcopyThe diskcopy command is used to copy the entire contents of one floppy disk to another. The diskcopy command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS, with the exclusion of Windows 10.DiskpartThe diskpart command is used to create, manage, and delete hard drive partitions. The diskpart command is available in Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The diskpart command replaced the fdisk command beginning in Windows XP.DiskperfThe diskperf command is used to manage disk performance counters remotely. The diskperf command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.DiskraidThe diskraid command starts the DiskRAID tool which is used to manage and configure RAID arrays. The diskraid command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.DismThe dism command starts the Deployment Image Servicing and Management tool (DISM). The DISM tool is used to manage features in Windows images. The dism command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7.DispdiagThe dispdiag command is used to output a log of information about the display system. The dispdiag command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.DjoinThe djoin command is used to create a new computer account in a domain. The djoin command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.DoskeyThe doskey command is used to edit command lines, create macros, and recall previously entered commands. The doskey command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.DosshellThe dosshell command starts DOS Shell, a graphical file management tool for MS-DOS. The dosshell command is available in Windows 95 (in MS-DOS mode) and also in MS-DOS version 6.0 and later MS-DOS versions that were upgraded from previous versions that contained the dosshell command. A graphical file manager, Windows Explorer, became an integrated part of the operating system beginning in Windows 95.DosxThe dosx command is used to start DOS Protected Mode Interface (DPMI), a special mode designed to give MS-DOS applications access to more than the normally allowed 640 KB. The dosx command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The dosx command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows. The dosx command and DPMI is only available in Windows to support older MS-DOS programs.DriverqueryThe driverquery command is used to show a list of all installed drivers. The driverquery command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.DrvspaceThe drvspace command is used to create or configure DriveSpace compressed drives. The drvspace command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. DriveSpace is an updated version of DoubleSpace, executed using the dblspace command. Windows began handling compression beginning in Windows XP.EchoThe echo command is used to show messages, most commonly from within script or batch files. The echo command can also be used to turn the echoing feature on or off. The echo command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.EditThe edit command starts the MS-DOS Editor tool which is used to create and modify text files. The edit command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The edit command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows.EdlinThe edlin command starts the Edlin tool which is used to create and modify text files from the command line. The edlin command is available in all 32-bit versions of Windows but is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows. In MS-DOS, the edlin command is only available up to MS-DOS 5.0, so unless your later version of MS-DOS was upgraded from 5.0 or prior, you won't see the edlin command.Emm386The emm386 command is used to give MS-DOS access to more than 640 KB of memory. The emm386 command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. Windows itself has access to extended and expanded memory beginning in Windows 95.EndlocalThe endlocal command is used to end the localization of environment changes inside a batch or script file. The endlocal command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.EraseThe erase command is used to delete one or more files. The erase command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS. The erase command is the same as the del command.EsentutlThe esentutl command is used to manage Extensible Storage Engine databases. The esentutl command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.EventcreateThe eventcreate command is used to create a custom event in an event log. The eventcreate command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.EventtriggersThe eventtriggers command is used to configure and display event triggers. The eventtriggers command is available in Windows XP. Beginning in Windows Vista, event triggers are created using the Attach Task To This Event feature in Event Viewer, making the eventtriggers command unnecessary.Exe2binThe exe2bin command is used to convert a file of the EXE file type (executable file) to a binary file. The exe2bin command is available in 32-bit versions of Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The exe2bin command is not available in any 64-bit version of Windows.ExitThe exit command is used to end the cmd.exe (Windows) or command.com (MS-DOS) session that you're currently working in. The exit command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.ExpandThe expand command is used to extract the files and folders contained in Microsoft Cabinet (CAB) files. The expand command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all versions of Windows. The expand command is not available in the 64-bit version of Windows XP.Extrac32The extrac32 command is used to extract the files and folders contained in Microsoft Cabinet (CAB) files. The extrac32 command is available in all versions of Windows. The extrac32 command is actually a CAB extraction program for use by Internet Explorer but can be used to extract any Microsoft Cabinet file. Use the expand command instead of the extrac32 command if possible.ExtractThe extract command is used to extract the files and folders contained in Microsoft Cabinet (CAB) files. The extract command is available in Windows 98 and 95. The extract command was replaced by the expand command beginning in Windows XP.FasthelpThe fasthelp command provides more detailed information on any of the other MS-DOS commands. The fasthelp command is only available in MS-DOS. The help command replaced the fasthelp command beginning in Windows 95.FastopenThe fastopen command is used to add a program's hard drive location to a special list stored in memory, potentially improving the program's launch time by removing the need for MS-DOS to locate the application on the drive. The fastopen command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The fastopen command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows. Fastopen is only available in Windows 10, Windows 8, 7, Vista, and XP to support older MS-DOS files.FcThe fc command is used to compare two individual or sets of files and then show the differences between them. The fc command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.FdiskThe fdisk command is used to create, manage, and delete hard drive partitions. The fdisk command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. The fdisk command was replaced by the diskpart command beginning in Windows XP. Partition management is also available from Disk Management in Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, and XP.FindThe find command is used to search for a specified text string in one or more files. The find command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.FindstrThe findstr command is used to find text string patterns in one or more files. The findstr command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.FingerThe finger command is used to return information about one or more users on a remote computer that's running the Finger service. The finger command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.FltmcThe fltmc command is used to load, unload, list, and otherwise manage Filter drivers. The fltmc command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.FondueThe fondue command, short for Features on Demand User Experience Tool, is used to install any of the several optional Windows features from the command line. The fondue command is available in Windows 8. Optional Windows features can also be installed from the Programs and Features applet in Control Panel.ForThe for command is used to run a specified command for each file in a set of files. The for command is most often used within a batch or script file. The for command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.ForcedosThe forcedos command is used to start the specified program in the MS-DOS subsystem. The forcedos command is only available in 32-bit versions of Windows XP. The forcedos command is only used for MS-DOS programs that are not recognized as such by Windows XP.ForfilesThe forfiles command selects one or more files to execute a specified command on. The forfiles command is most often used within a batch or script file. The forfiles command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.FormatThe format command is used to format a drive in the file system that you specify. The format command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS. Drive formatting is also available from Disk Management in Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, and XP.FsutilThe fsutil command is used to perform various FAT and NTFS file system tasks like managing reparse points and sparse files, dismounting a volume, and extending a volume. The fsutil command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.FtpThe ftp command can be used to transfer files to and from another computer. The remote computer must be operating as an FTP server. The ftp command is available in all versions of Windows.FtypeThe ftype command is used to define a default program to open a specified file type. The ftype command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.GetmacThe getmac command is used to display the media access control (MAC) address of all the network controllers on a system. The getmac command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.GotoThe goto command is used in a batch or script file to direct the command process to a labeled line in the script. The goto command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.GpresultThe gpresult command is used to display Group Policy settings. The gpresult command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.GpupdateThe gpupdate command is used to update Group Policy settings. The gpupdate command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.GraftablThe graftabl command is used to enable the ability of Windows to display an extended character set in graphics mode. The graftabl command is available in all versions of Windows and in MS-DOS up to version 5.0. The graftabl command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows.GraphicsThe graphics command is used to load a program that can print graphics. The graphics command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The graphics command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows.HelpThe help command provides more detailed information on any of the other Command Prompt or MS-DOS commands. The help command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.HostnameThe hostname command displays the name of the current host. The hostname command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.HwrcompThe hwrcomp command is used to compile custom dictionaries for handwriting recognition. The hwrcomp command is available in Windows 8 and Windows 7.HwrregThe hwrreg command is used to install a previously compiled custom dictionary for handwriting recognition. The hwrreg command is available in Windows 8 and Windows 7.IcaclsThe icacls command is used to display or change access control lists of files. The icacls command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista. The icacls command is an updated version of the cacls command.IfThe if command is used to perform conditional functions in a batch file. The if command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.InterlnkThe interlnk command is used to connect two computers via a serial or parallel connection to share files and printers. The interlnk command is only available in MS-DOS. The ability to directly connect two computers is handled by the networking functions in all versions of Windows.IntersvrThe intersvr command is used to start the Interlnk server and to copy Interlnk files from one computer to another. The intersvr command is only available in MS-DOS. The ability to directly connect two computers is handled by the networking functions in all versions of Windows.IpconfigThe ipconfig command is used to display detailed IP information for each network adapter utilizing TCP/IP. The ipconfig command can also be used to release and renew IP addresses on systems configured to receive them via a DHCP server. The ipconfig command is available in all versions of Windows.IpxrouteThe ipxroute command is used to display and change information about IPX routing tables. The ipxroute command is available in Windows XP. Microsoft removed their built-in NetWare client beginning in Windows Vista, removing the associated ipxroute command as well.IrftpThe irftp command is used to transmit files over an infrared link. The irftp command is available in Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.IscsicliThe iscsicli command starts the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator, used to manage iSCSI. The iscsicli command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.Kb16The kb16 command is used to support MS-DOS files that need to configure a keyboard for a specific language. The kb16 command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The kb16 command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows. The kb16 command replaced the keyb command beginning in Windows XP but only exists to support older MS-DOS files.KeybThe keyb command is used to configure a keyboard for a specific language. The keyb command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. See the kb16 command for an equivalent command in later versions of Windows. Keyboard language settings are handled by the Region and Language or Regional and Language Options (depending on the version of Windows) Control Panel applets in Windows beginning in Windows XP.KlistThe klist command is used to list Kerberos service tickets. The klist command can also be used to purge Kerberos tickets. The klist command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8 and Windows 7.KsetupThe ksetup command is used to configure connections to a Kerberos server. The ksetup command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8 and Windows 7.KtmutilThe ktmutil command starts the Kernel Transaction Manager utility. The ktmutil command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.LabelThe label command is used to manage the volume label of a disk. The label command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.LhThe lh command is the shorthand version of the loadhigh command. The lh command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS.LicensingdiagThe licensingdiag command is a tool used to generate a text-based log and other data files that contain product activation and other Windows licensing information. The licensingdiag command is available in Windows 10 and Windows 8.LoadfixThe loadfix command is used to load the specified program in the first 64K of memory and then runs the program. The loadfix command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The loadfix command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows.LoadhighThe loadhigh command is used to load a program into high memory and is usually used from within the autoexec.bat file. The loadhigh command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. Memory usage is handled automatically beginning in Windows XP.LockThe lock command is used to lock a drive, enabling direct disk access for a program. The lock command is only available in Windows 98 and 95. Drive locking is no longer available as of Windows XP.LodctrThe lodctr command is used to update registry values related to performance counters. The lodctr command is available in all versions of Windows.LogmanThe logman command is used to create and manage Event Trace Session and Performance logs. The logman command also supports many functions of Performance Monitor. The logman command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.LogoffThe logoff command is used to terminate a session. The logoff command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.LpqThe lpq command displays the status of a print queue on a computer running Line Printer Daemon (LPD). The lpq command is available in all versions of Windows. The lpq command is not available by default in Windows 10, 8, 7, or Vista, but can be enabled by turning on the LPD Print Service and LPR Port Monitor features from Programs and Features in Control Panel.LprThe lpr command is used to send a file to a computer running Line Printer Daemon (LPD). The lpr command is available in all versions of Windows. The lpr command is not available by default in Windows 10, 8, 7, or Vista, but can be enabled by turning on the LPD Print Service and LPR Port Monitor features from Programs and Features in Control Panel.MakecabThe makecab command is used to losslessly compress one or more files. The makecab command is sometimes called Cabinet Maker. The makecab command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The makecab command is the same as the diantz command, a command that was removed after Windows 7.Manage-bdeThe manage-bde command is used to configure BitLocker Drive Encryption from the command line. The manage-bde command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7. A script by the name of manage-bde.wsf exists in Windows Vista and can be used with the cscript command to perform BitLocker tasks from the command line in that operating system.MdThe md command is the shorthand version of the mkdir command. The md command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.MemThe mem command shows information about used and free memory areas and programs that are currently loaded into memory in the MS-DOS subsystem. The mem command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The mem command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows.MemmakerThe memmaker command is used to start MemMaker, a memory optimization tool. The memaker command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. Memory usage is automatically optimized beginning in Windows XP.MkdirThe mkdir command is used to create a new folder. The mkdir command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.MklinkThe mklink command is used to create a symbolic link. The mklink command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.ModeThe mode command is used to configure system devices, most often COM and LPT ports. The mode command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.MofcompThe mofcomp command properly displays the data within a Managed Object Format (MOF) file. The mofcomp command is available in all versions of Windows.MoreThe more command is used to display the information contained in a text file. The more command can also be used to paginate the results of any other Command Prompt or MS-DOS command. The more command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.MountThe mount command is used to mount Network File System (NFS) network shares. The mount command is available in Windows 7 and Windows Vista. The mount command is not available by default in Windows Vista or Windows 7 but can be enabled by turning on the Services for NFS Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel. The mount command is not available in Windows 10 or 8 because Service for UNIX (SFU) was discontinued.MountvolThe mountvol command is used to display, create, or remove volume mount points. The mountvol command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.MoveThe move command is used to move one or files from one folder to another. The move command is also used to rename directories. The move command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.MrinfoThe mrinfo command is used to provide information about a router's interfaces and neighbors. The mrinfo command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.MsavThe msav command starts Microsoft Antivirus. The msav command is only available in MS-DOS. Microsoft Antivirus was designed for MS-DOS and Windows 3.x only. Microsoft provides an optional virus protection suite called Microsoft Security Essentials for Windows XP and later operating systems, and third party antivirus tools are available for all versions of Windows.MsbackupThe msbackup command starts Microsoft Backup, a tool used to back up and restore one or more files. The msbackup command is only available in MS-DOS. The msbackup command was replaced with Microsoft Backup beginning in Windows 95 and then Backup and Restore in later versions of Windows.MscdexThe mscdex command is used to provide CD-ROM access to MS-DOS. The mscdex command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. Windows provides access to CD-ROM drives for the MS-DOS subsystem beginning in Windows XP, so the mscdex command is unnecessary in this and later operating systems.MsdThe msd command starts Microsoft Diagnostics, a tool used to display information about your computer. The msd command is only available in MS-DOS. The msd command was replaced with System Information beginning in Windows 95.MsgThe msg command is used to send a message to a user. The msg command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.MsiexecThe msiexec command is used to start Windows Installer, a tool used to install and configure software. The msiexec command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.MuiunattendThe muiunattend command starts the Multilanguage User Interface unattended setup process. The muiunattend command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.NbtstatThe nbtstat command is used to show TCP/IP information and other statistical information about a remote computer. The nbtstat command is available in all versions of Windows.NetThe net command is used to display, configure, and correct a wide variety of network settings. The net command is available in all versions of Windows.Net1The net1 command is used to display, configure, and correct a wide variety of network settings. The net1 command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The net command should be used instead of the net1 command. The net1 command was made available in Windows NT and Windows 2000 as a temporary fix for a Y2K issue that the net command had, which was corrected before the release of Windows XP. The net1 command remains in later versions of Windows only for compatibility with older programs and scripts that utilized the command.NetcfgThe netcfg command is used to install the Windows Preinstallation Environment (WinPE), a lightweight version of Windows used to deploy workstations. The netcfg command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.NetshThe netsh command is used to start Network Shell, a command-line utility used to manage the network configuration of the local, or a remote, computer. The netsh command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.NetstatThe netstat command is most commonly used to display all open network connections and listening ports. The netstat command is available in all versions of Windows.NfsadminThe nfsadmin command is used to manage Server for NFS or Client for NFS from the command line. The nfsadmin command is available in Windows 7 and Windows Vista. The nfsadmin command is not available by default in Windows Vista or Windows 7 but can be enabled by turning on the Services for NFS Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel. The nfsadmin command is not available in Windows 10 or 8 because Service for UNIX (SFU) was discontinued.NlsfuncThe nlsfunc command is used to load information specific to a particular country or region. The nlsfunc command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The nlsfunc command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows. Nlsfunc is only available in Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, and XP to support older MS-DOS files.NltestThe nltest command is used to test secure channels between Windows computers in a domain and between domain controllers that are trusting other domains. The nltest command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7.NslookupThe nslookup is most commonly used to display the hostname of an entered IP address. The nslookup command queries your configured DNS server to discover the IP address. The nslookup command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.NtbackupThe ntbackup command is used to perform various backup functions from the Command Prompt or from within a batch or script file. The ntbackup command is available in Windows XP. The ntbackup command was replaced with the wbadmin beginning in Windows Vista.NtsdThe ntsd command is used to perform certain command line debugging tasks. The ntsd command is available in Windows XP. The ntsd command was removed beginning in Windows Vista due to the addition of dump file support in Task Manager.OcsetupThe ocsetup command starts the Windows Optional Component Setup tool, used to install additional Windows features. The ocsetup command is available in Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista. Beginning in Windows 8, Microsoft is depreciating the ocsetup command in favor of the dism command.OpenfilesThe openfiles command is used to display and disconnect open files and folders on a system. The openfiles command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.PathThe path command is used to display or set a specific path available to executable files. The path command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.PathpingThe pathping command functions much like the tracert command but will also report information about network latency and loss at each hop. The pathping command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.PauseThe pause command is used within a batch or script file to pause the processing of the file. When the pause command is used, a "Press any key to continue…" message displays in the command window. The pause command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.PentntThe pentnt command is used to detect floating point division errors in the Intel Pentium chip. The pentnt command is also used to enable floating point emulation and disable floating point hardware. The pentnt command is available in Windows XP. The pentnt command was removed beginning in Windows Vista due to the lack of Intel Pentium CPU use at the time of this operating system release.PingThe ping command sends an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request message to a specified remote computer to verify IP-level connectivity. The ping command is available in all versions of Windows.PkgmgrThe pkgmgr command is used to start the Windows Package Manager from the Command Prompt. Package Manager installs, uninstalls, configures, and updates features and packages for Windows. The pkgmgr command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.PnpunattendThe pnpunattend command is used to automate the installation of hardware device drivers. The pnpunattend command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.PnputilThe pnputil command is used to start the Microsoft PnP Utility, a tool used to install a Plug and Play device from the command line. The pnputil command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.PopdThe popd command is used to change the current directory to the one most recently stored by the pushd command. The popd command is most often utilized from within a batch or script file. The popd command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.PowerThe power command is used to reduce the power consumed by a computer by monitoring software and hardware devices. The power command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. The power command was replaced by operating system integrated power management functions beginning in Windows XP.PowercfgThe powercfg command is used to manage the Windows power management settings from the command line. The powercfg command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.PrintThe print command is used to print a specified text file to a specified printing device. The print command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.PromptThe prompt command is used to customize the appearance of the prompt text in Command Prompt or MS-DOS. The prompt command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.PushdThe pushd command is used to store a directory for use, most commonly from within a batch or script program. The pushd command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.PwlauncherThe pwlauncher command is used to enable, disable, or show the status of your Windows To Go startup options. The pwlauncher command is available in Windows 10 and 8.QappsrvThe qappsrv command is used to display all Remote Desktop Session Host servers available on the network. The qappsrv command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.QbasicThe qbasic command starts QBasic, the MS-DOS based programming environment for the BASIC programming language. The qbasic command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. The qbasic command is not installed by default with Windows 98 or 95 but is available from the installation disc or disks.QprocessThe qprocess command is used to display information about running processes. The qprocess command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.QueryThe query command is used to display the status of a specified service. The query command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.QuserThe quser command is used to display information about users currently logged on to the system. The quser command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.QwinstaThe qwinsta command is used to display information about open Remote Desktop Sessions. The qwinsta command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.RasautouThe rasautou command is used to manage Remote Access Dialer AutoDial addresses. The rasautou command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.RasdialThe rasdial command is used to start or end a network connection for a Microsoft client. The rasdial command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.RcpThe rcp command is used to copy files between a Windows computer and a system running the rshd daemon. The rcp command is available in Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The rcp command is not available by default in Windows Vista or Windows 7 but can be enabled by turning on the Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel and then installing the Utilities and SDK for UNIX-based Applications available here for Windows Vista and here for Windows 7. The rcp command is not available in Windows 10 or 8 because Service for UNIX (SFU) was discontinued.RdThe rd command is the shorthand version of the rmdir command. The rd command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.RdpsignThe rdpsign command is used to sign a Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) file. The rdpsign command is available in Windows 7.ReagentcThe reagentc command is used to configure the Windows Recovery Environment (RE). The reagentc command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7.RecimgThe recimg command is used to create a custom refresh image. The recimg command is available in Windows 8.RecoverThe recover command is used to recover readable data from a bad or defective disk. The recover command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.RegThe reg command is used to manage the Windows Registry from the command line. The reg command can perform common registry functions like adding registry keys, exporting the registry, etc. The reg command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.ReginiThe regini command is used to set or change registry permissions and registry values from the command line. The regini command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.Register-cimproviderThe register-cimprovider command is used to register a Common Information Model (CIM) Provider in Windows. The register-cimprovider command is available in Windows 10 and Windows 8.Regsvr32The regsvr32 command is used to register a DLL file as a command component in the Windows Registry. The regsvr32 command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.RelogThe relog command is used to create new performance logs from data in existing performance logs. The relog command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.RemThe rem command is used to record comments or remarks in a batch or script file. The rem command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.RenThe ren command is the shorthand version of the rename command. The ren command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.RenameThe rename command is used to change the name of the individual file that you specify. The rename command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.Repair-bdeThe repair-bde command is used to repair or decrypt a damaged drive that's been encrypted using BitLocker. The repair-bde command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7.ReplaceThe replace command is used to replace one or more files with one or more other files. The replace command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.ResetThe reset command, executed as reset session, is used to reset the session subsystem software and hardware to known initial values. The reset command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.RestoreThe restore command is used to restore files that were backed up using the backup command. The restore command is only available in MS-DOS. The backup command was only available up to MS-DOS 5.00 but the restore command was included by default with later versions of MS-DOS to provide a way to restore files that were backed up in previous versions of MS-DOS.RexecThe rexec command is used to run commands on remote computers running the rexec daemon. The rexec command is available in Windows Vista and Windows XP. The rsh command is not available by default in Windows Vista but can be enabled by turning on the Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel and then installing the Utilities and SDK for UNIX-based Applications available here. The rexec command is not available in Windows 7 but can be executed in Windows XP via Windows XP Mode if need be.RmdirThe rmdir command is used to delete an existing or completely empty folder. The rmdir command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.RobocopyThe robocopy command is used to copy files and directories from one location to another. This command is also called Robust File Copy. The robocopy command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista. The robocopy command is superior to both the copy command and the xcopy command because robocopy supports many more options.RouteThe route command is used to manipulate network routing tables. The route command is available in all versions of Windows.RpcinfoThe rpcinfo command makes a remote procedure call (RPC) to an RPC server and reports what it finds. The rpcinfo command is available in Windows 7 and Windows Vista. The rpcinfo command is not available by default in Windows Vista or Windows 7 but can be enabled by turning on the Services for NFS Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel. The rpcinfo command is not available in Windows 8 because Service for UNIX (SFU) was discontinued.RpcpingThe rpcping command is used to ping a server using RPC. The rpcping command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.RshThe rsh command is used to run commands on remote computers running the rsh daemon. The rsh command is available in Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The rsh command is not available by default in Windows Vista or Windows 7 but can be enabled by turning on the Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel and then installing the Utilities and SDK for UNIX-based Applications available here for Windows Vista and here for Windows 7. The rsh command is not available in Windows 10 or 8 because Service for UNIX (SFU) was discontinued.RsmThe rsm command is used to manage media resources using Removable Storage. The rsm command is available in Windows Vista and Windows XP. The rsm command was optional in Windows Vista and then removed in Windows 7 due to Removable Storage Manager being removed from the operating system. Search for the rsm command in the C:\Windows\winsxs folder in Windows Vista if you're having trouble executing the command.RunasThe runas command is used to execute a program using another user's credentials. The runas command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.RwinstaThe rwinsta command is the shorthand version of the reset session command. The rwinsta command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.ScThe sc command is used to configure information about services. The sc command communicates with the Service Control Manager. The sc command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.ScandiskThe scandisk command is used to start Microsoft ScanDisk, a disk repair program. The scandisk command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. The scandisk command was replaced by the chkdsk command beginning in Windows XP.ScanregThe scanreg command starts Windows Registry Checker, a basic registry repair program and backup utility. The scanreg command is available in Windows 98 and Windows 95. The functions provided by the scanreg command were no longer necessary beginning in Windows XP due to changes in how the Windows Registry functions.SchtasksThe schtasks command is used to schedule specified programs or commands to run at certain times. The schtasks command can be used to create, delete, query, change, run, and end scheduled tasks. The schtasks command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.​SdbinstThe sdbinst command is used to deploy customized SDB database files. The sdbinst command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.SeceditThe secedit command is used to configure and analyze system security by comparing the current security configuration to a template. The secedit command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.SetThe set command is used to display, enable, or disable environment variables in MS-DOS or from the Command Prompt. The set command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.SetlocalThe setlocal command is used to start the localization of environment changes inside a batch or script file. The setlocal command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.SetspnThe setspn command is used to manage the Service Principal Names (SPN) for an Active Directory (AD) service account. The setspn command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7.SetverThe setver command is used to set the MS-DOS version number that MS-DOS reports to a program. The setver command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The setver command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows.SetxThe setx command is used to create or change environment variables in the user environment or the system environment. The setx command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.SfcThe sfc command is used to verify and replace important Windows system files. The sfc command is also referred to as System File Checker or Windows Resource Checker, depending on the operating system. The sfc command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.ShadowThe shadow command is used to monitor another Remote Desktop Services session. The shadow command is available in Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.ShareThe share command is used to install file locking and file sharing functions in MS-DOS. The share command is available in MS-DOS as well as in all 32-bit versions of Windows. The share command is not available in 64-bit versions of Windows. Share is only available in Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, and XP to support older MS-DOS files.ShiftThe shift command is used to change the position of replaceable parameters in a batch or script file. The shift command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.ShowmountThe showmount command is used to display information about NFS mounted file systems. The showmount command is available in Windows 7 and Windows Vista. The showmount command is not available by default in Windows Vista or Windows 7 but can be enabled by turning on the Services for NFS Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel. The showmount command is not available in Windows 10 or 8 because Service for UNIX (SFU) was discontinued.ShutdownThe shutdown command can be used to shut down, restart, or log off the current system or a remote computer. The shutdown command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.SmartdrvThe smartdrv command installs and configures SMARTDrive, a disk caching utility for MS-DOS. The smartdrv command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. Caching is automatic beginning in Windows XP, making the smartdrv command unnecessary.SortThe sort command is used to read data from a specified input, sort that data, and return the results of that sort to the Command Prompt screen, a file, or another output device. The sort command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.StartThe start command is used to open a new command line window to run a specified program or command. The start command can also be used to start an application without creating a new window. The start command is available in all versions of Windows.SubstThe subst command is used to associate a local path with a drive letter. The subst command is a lot like the net use command except a local path is used instead of a shared network path. The subst command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS. The subst command replaced the assign command beginning with MS-DOS 6.0.SxstraceThe sxstrace command is used to start the WinSxs Tracing Utility, a programming diagnostic tool. The sxstrace command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.SysThe sys command is used to copy the MS-DOS system files and command interpreter to a disk. The sys command is available in Windows 98 and 95, as well as in MS-DOS. The sys command is used most often to create a simple bootable disk or hard drive. The necessary system files for Windows are too large to fit on a disk, so the sys command was removed beginning in Windows XP.SysteminfoThe systeminfo command is used to display basic Windows configuration information for the local or a remote computer. The systeminfo command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.TakeownThe takedown command is used to regain access to a file that that an administrator was denied access to when reassigning ownership of the file. The takeown command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.TaskkillThe taskkill command is used to terminate a running task. The taskkill command is the command line equivalent of ending a process in Task Manager in Windows. The taskkill command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.TasklistDisplays a list of applications, services, and the Process ID (PID) currently running on either a local or a remote computer. The tasklist command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.TcmsetupThe tcmsetup command is used to set up or disable the Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI) client. The tcmsetup command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.TelnetThe telnet command is used to communicate with remote computers that use the Telnet protocol. The telnet command is available in all versions of Windows. The telnet command is not available by default in Windows 10, 8, 7, or Vista, but can be enabled by turning on the Telnet Client Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel.TftpThe tftp command is used to transfer files to and from a remote computer that's running the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) service or daemon. The tftp command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The tftp command is not available by default in Windows 8, 7, or Vista, but can be enabled by turning on the TFTP Client Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel.TimeThe time command is used to show or change the current time. The time command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.TimeoutThe timeout command is typically used in a batch or script file to provide a specified timeout value during a procedure. The timeout command can also be used to ignore keypresses. The timeout command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.TitleThe title command is used to set the Command Prompt window title. The title command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.TlntadmnThe tlntadmn command is used to administer a local or remote computer running Telnet Server. The tlntadmn command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. The tlntadmn command is not available by default in Windows 8, 7, or Vista, but can be enabled by turning on the Telnet Server Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel.TpmvscmgrThe tpmvscmgr command is used to create and destroy TPM virtual smart cards. The tpmvscmgr command is available in Windows 8.TracerptThe tracerpt command is used to process event trace logs or real-time data from instrumented event trace providers. The tracerpt command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.TracertThe tracert command sends Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages to a specified remote computer with increasing Time to Live (TTL) field values and displays the IP address and hostname, if available, of the router interfaces between the source and destination. The tracert command is available in all versions of Windows.TreeThe tree command is used to graphically display the folder structure of a specified drive or path. The tree command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.TsconThe tscon command is used to attach a user session to a Remote Desktop session. The tscon command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.TsdisconThe tsdiscon command is used to disconnect a Remote Desktop session. The tsdiscon command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.TskillThe tskill command is used to end the specified process. The tskill command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.TsshutdnThe tsshutdn command is used to remotely shut down or restart a terminal server. The tsshutdn command is available in Windows XP. The ability to shut down a computer remotely is also available in the more powerful shutdown command, so tsshutdn was removed beginning in Windows Vista.TypeThe type command is used to display the information contained in a text file. The type command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.TypeperfThe typerperf command displays performance data in the Command Prompt window or writes the data to specified log file. The typeperf command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.TzutilThe tzutil command is used to display or configure the current system's time zone. The tzutil command can also be used to enable or disable Daylight Saving Time adjustments. The tzutil command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7.UmountThe umount command is used to remove Network File System (NFS) mounted network shares. The umount command is available in Windows 7 and Windows Vista. The umount command is not available by default in Windows Vista or Windows 7 but can be enabled by turning on the Services for NFS Windows feature from Programs and Features in Control Panel. The umount command is not available in Windows 10 or 8 because Service for UNIX (SFU) was discontinued.UndeleteThe undelete command is used to undo a deletion performed with the MS-DOS delete command. The undelete command is only available in MS-DOS. The undelete command was removed beginning in Windows 95 due to the availability of the Recycle Bin in Windows. Additionally, free file recovery programs are available from third-party software makers.UnformatThe unformat command is used to undo the formatting on a drive performed by the MS-DOS format command. The unformat command is only available in MS-DOS. The unformat command was removed beginning in Windows 95 due to file system changes.UnlockThe unlock command is used to unlock a drive, disabling direct disk access for a program. The unlock command is only available in Windows 98 and 95. Drive locking is no longer available as of Windows XP.UnlodctrThe unlodctr command removes Explain text and Performance counter names for a service or device driver from the Windows Registry. The unlodctr command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.VaultcmdThe vaultcmd command is used to create, remove, and show stored credentials. The vaultcmd command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7.VerThe ver command is used to display the current Windows or MS-DOS version number. The ver command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.VerifyThe verify command is used to enable or disable the ability of Command Prompt, or MS-DOS, to verify that files are written correctly to a disk. The verify command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.VolThe vol command shows the volume label and serial number of a specified disk, assuming this information exists. The vol command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS.VsafeThe vsafe command is used to start VSafe, a basic virus protection system for MS-DOS. The vsafe command is only available in MS-DOS. VSafe was designed for MS-DOS and Windows 3.x only. Microsoft provides an optional virus protection suite called Microsoft Security Essentials for Windows XP and later operating systems, and third-party antivirus tools are available for all versions of Windows.VssadminThe vssadmin command starts the Volume Shadow Copy Service administrative command line tool which displays current volume shadow copy backups and all installed shadow copy writers and providers. The vssadmin command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.W32tmThe w32tm command is used to diagnose issues with Windows Time. The w32tm command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.WaitforThe waitfor command is used to send or wait for a signal on a system. The waitfor command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.WbadminThe wbadmin command is used to start and stop backup jobs, display details about a previous backup, list the items within a backup, and report on the status of a currently running backup. The wbadmin command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista. The wbadmin command replaced the ntbackup command beginning in Windows Vista.WecutilThe wecutil command is used to manage subscriptions to events that are forwarded from WS-Management supported computers. The wecutil command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.WevtutilThe wevtutil command starts the Windows Events Command Line Utility which is used to manage event logs and publishers. The wevtutil command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.WhereThe where command is used to search for files that match a specified pattern. The where command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.WhoamiThe whoami command is used to retrieve user name and group information on a network. The whoami command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.WinmgmtThe winmgmt command starts the command line version of WMI, a scripting tool in Windows. The winmgmt command is available in all versions of Windows.WinrmThe winrm command is used to start the command line version of Windows Remote Management, used to manage secure communications with local and remote computers using web services. The winrm command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.WinrsThe winrs command is used to open a secure command window with a remote host. The winrs command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.WinsatThe winsat command starts the Windows System Assessment Tool, a program that assesses various features, attributes, and capabilities of a computer running Windows. The winsat command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.WmicThe wmic command starts the Windows Management Instrumentation Command line (WMIC), a scripting interface that simplifies the use of Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) and systems managed via WMI. The wmic command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP.WsmanhttpconfigThe wsmanhttpconfig command is used to manage aspects of the Windows Remote Management (WinRM) service. The wsmanhttpconfig command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, and Windows Vista.XcopyThe xcopy command can copy one or more files or directory trees from one location to another. The xcopy command is generally considered a more "powerful" version of the copy command through the robocopy command trumps even xcopy. The xcopy command is available in all versions of Windows, as well as in MS-DOS. A command by the name of xcopy32 existed in Windows 95 and Windows 98. To avoid a long and confusing explanation here, just know that no matter if you executed the xcopy command or the xcopy32 command, you were always executing the most updated version of the command.XwizardThe xwizard command, short for Extensible Wizard, is used to register data in Windows, often from a preconfigured XML file. The xwizard command is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7.
      Источник: https://www.lifewire.com/list-of-command-prompt-commands-4092302
      WinDownload

      Tree View API

      The Tree View API allows extensions to show content in the sidebar in Visual Studio Code. This content is structured as a tree and conforms to the style of the built-in views of VS Code.

      For example, the built-in References Search View extension shows reference search results as a separate view.

      References Search View

      The Find All References results are displayed in a References: Results Tree View, which is in the References View Container.

      This guide teaches you how to write an extension that contributes Tree Views and View Containers to Visual Studio Code.

      Tree View API Basics

      To explain the Tree View API, we are going to build a sample extension called Node Dependencies. This extension will use a treeview to display all Node.js dependencies in the current folder. The steps for adding a treeview are to contribute the treeview in your , create a , and register the . You can find the complete source code of this sample extension in the in the vscode-extension-samples GitHub repository.

      package.json Contribution

      First you have to let VS Code know that you are contributing a view, using the contributes.views Contribution Point in .

      Here's the for the first version of our extension:

      You must specify an identifier and name for the view, and you can contribute to following locations:

      • : Explorer view in the Side Bar
      • : Run and Debug view in the Side Bar
      • : Source Control view in the Side Bar
      • : Test explorer view in the Side Bar
      • Custom View Containers

      Tree Data Provider

      The second step is to provide data to the view you registered so that VS Code can display the data in the view. To do so, you should first implement the TreeDataProvider. Our will provide node dependencies data, but you can have a data provider that provides other types of data.

      There are two necessary methods in this API that you need to implement:

      • - Implement this to return the children for the given or root (if no element is passed).
      • - Implement this to return the UI representation (TreeItem) of the element that gets displayed in the view.

      When the user opens the Tree View, the method will be called without an . From there, your should return your top-level tree items. In our example, the of the top-level tree items is , meaning that the top-level tree items will show as collapsed. Setting the to will cause tree items to show as expanded. Leaving the as its default of indicates that the tree item has no children. will not be called for tree items with a of .

      Here is an example of a implementation that provides node dependencies data:

      Registering the TreeDataProvider

      The third step is to register the above data provider to your view.

      This can be done in the following two ways:

      • - Register the tree data provider by providing the registered view id and above data provider.

      • - Create the Tree View by providing the registered view id and above data provider. This will give access to the TreeView, which you can use for performing other view operations. Use , if you need the API.

      Here's the extension in action:

      View

      Updating Tree View content

      Our node dependencies view is simple, and once the data is shown, it isn't updated. However, it would be useful to have a refresh button in the view and update the node dependencies view with the current contents of the . To do this, we can use the event.

      • - Implement this if your tree data can change and you want to update the treeview.

      Add the following to your .

      Now we have a refresh method, but no one is calling it. We can add a command to call refresh.

      In the section of your , add:

      And register the command in your extension activation:

      Now we have a command that will refresh the node dependencies view, but a button on the view would be even better. We already added an to the command, so it will show up with that icon when we add it to the view.

      In the section of your , add:

      Activation

      It is important that your extension is activated only when user needs the functionality that your extension provides. In this case, you should consider activating your extension when the user starts using the view. VS Code emits an activationEvent onView:${viewId} ( for the example above) when the user opens the view.

      You can register to this activation event in and VS Code will activate your extension on this event:

      View Container

      A View Container contains a list of views that are displayed in the Activity Bar or Panel along with the built-in View Containers. Examples of built-in View Containers are Source Control and Explorer.

      View Container

      To contribute a View Container, you should first register it using contributes.viewsContainers Contribution Point in .

      You have to specify the following required fields:

      • - The name of the new view container you're creating.
      • - The name that will show up at the top of the view container.
      • - An image that will be displayed for the view container when in the Activity Bar.

      Alternatively, you could contribute this view to the panel by placing it under the node.

      Contributing views to View Containers

      Once you've created a View Container, you can use the contributes.views Contribution Point in .

      A view can also have an optional property which can be set to , , or . This property is only respected by VS Code the first time a workspace is opened with this view. After that, the visibility is set to whatever the user has chosen. If you have a view container with many views, or if your view will not be useful to every user of your extension, consider setting the view the or . A view will appear in the view containers "Views" menu:

      Views Menu

      View Actions

      Actions are available as inline icons on your individual tree items, in tree item context menus, and at the top of your view in the view title. Actions are commands that you set to show up in these locations by adding contributions to your .

      To contribute to these three places, you can use the following menu contribution points in your package.json:

      • - Location to show actions in the view title. Primary or inline actions use and rest are secondary actions, which are in menu.
      • - Location to show actions for the tree item. Inline actions use and rest are secondary actions, which are in menu.

      You can control the visibility of these actions using a when clause.

      View Actions

      Examples:

      Note: If you want to show an action for specific tree items, you can do so by defining the context of a tree item using and you can specify the context value for key in expression.

      Examples:

      Welcome content

      If your view can be empty, or if you want to add Welcome content to another extension's empty view, you can contribute content. An empty view is a view that has no and an empty tree.

      Welcome Content

      Links are supported in Welcome content. By convention, a link on a line by itself is a button. Each Welcome content can also contain a clause. For more examples, see the built-in Git extension.

      TreeDataProvider

      Extension writers should register a TreeDataProvider programmatically to populate data in the view.

      See nodeDependencies.ts in the for the implementation.

      TreeView

      If you would like to perform some UI operations on the view programmatically, you can use instead of . This will give access to the view, which you can use for performing view operations.

      See ftpExplorer.ts in the for the implementation.

      11/4/2021

      Источник: https://code.visualstudio.com/api/extension-guides/tree-view

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