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Packaging Content in a KMZ File

The best stories told in Google Earth tend to make use of images. KMZ files offer a great way to bundle your placemarks with the images they reference. This tutorial shows you how to make the best use of what KMZ files offer.

Tutorial Contents

Prerequisites

  • In April 2017, Google Earth on Web was released, which puts Earth on the browser. However, for this tutorial, you will need Earth for Desktop installed on your computer. Download the latest version here. (It's free!)

What Is a KMZ File?

KMZ files are very similar to ZIP files. They allow you to package multiple files together, and they compress the contents to make downloading faster. This allows you to bundle images along with your KML file if you want.

You can easily create KMZ files using Google Earth. When you save a placemark or folder from your Places panel you have the choice to save your content as a KMZ file or a KML file. This is similar to the way that web browsers allow you to save complete web pages, including images and style sheets, or just the HTML for a single web page.

Here's a video covering some of the basics of KMZ files using Google Earth Pro:

Learn why KMZ Files Can be Useful for Google Earth Content


When to Use the KMZ File Format

Here are some general tips on when you might want to use KML instead of KMZ and vice versa. Note that these are guidelines, and you're free to choose the approach that best suits your needs


Develop your content as a simple KML file.

Don't worry too much about KMZ files when you're starting a new project. It's good practice to organize any images you use into a small number of folders, but don't worry about packaging your work into a KMZ until later.


Publish your content as a KMZ file.

When you're ready to distribute your content to others - whether you're posting a file on the web, emailing an attachment to a colleague, or preparing for a presentation in front of a live audience - save your KML file and any images you want to include as a KMZ file.

When you make a KMZ file, you don't have to include images. A KMZ file can simply be a compressed version of a KML file without any multimedia files included. At the very least, you'll make a smaller file that will download faster.


Deciding on a project type

Before starting a new project using Google Earth, think about the goal of that project:

  • If you want your KML file to reference images on the web, you'll need a web-dependent project.

  • If you intend to present your project without internet access or to distribute your content to a private group, you'll need a self-contained project.


Tips for Web-Dependent Projects

Sometimes you'll want your placemarks to reference images on the web. This could come in handy if you will be updating the images periodically, you want to include attributed images from another site, or if you simply want to reduce the download size of your KMZ file.

Here are a few tips for using images on the web in your KML file:

  • Post any images that your placemarks need in a publicly accessible location on your web server

  • If you want to view your KML or KMZ in Google Earth (v9) on web, then you will need to make sure the server that hosts your images and other files provides appropriate CORS headers, or Earth on web won't be able to access them. This is usually a question for your webmaster.

  • In your KML file, refer to each image on your web site using its absolute path. An absolute path is the full url to the image, such as http://www.google.com/images/google_sm.gif, rather than a relative path, like images/google_sm.gif.

  • Create a KMZ file that includes only your KML file.

  • Publish your new KMZ file on your web server.

Here's a simple video example of making a KMZ file (without including images) and publishing it on the web:

Using KMZ Files for Web-Dependent Projects

Here are some links and resources mentioned in the video:


Tips for Self-Contained Projects

If you're planning to send around your content to a private group or are presenting it in a location that has limited or no internet access, consider bundling any images your placemarks reference as a part of your final KMZ file. Google Earth does this automatically for you if the images you use in your placemarks are on your computer's hard drive.

Before you start creating a self-contained project, complete the section on web-dependent projects above.

Here are a few tips:

  • Make sure that any images you want to include in your KMZ file are on your computer's hard drive.

  • If you copied images from the web to your hard drive, make sure your placemarks reference the images on your hard drive, not the originals on the web.

  • Create a KMZ file using Google Earth that reads your KML file and automatically collects the images it needs for the KMZ file from your hard drive.

  • Send an email to your colleagues with your new KMZ file attached.

Here's a video example of creating a KMZ with images included. The video is broken into 2 parts:

Using KMZ Files for Offline Projects (1/2)

Using KMZ Files for Offline Projects (2/2)


A Few Warnings

The tips above are designed to help you avoid some of the common pitfalls and questions you might run into. There are always trade-offs for each choice you make in designing your KMZ. Here are a few warnings to help you minimize any problems that might occur:

  • If one of your placemarks refers to images on your web site using relative URLs (such as "images/myphoto.jpg"), the images won't display properly in Google Earth. For the most part, relative paths should only be used to refer to images included in the KMZ file.

  • If you create a KMZ file with the Save as option in Google Earth, it will only include images on your computer in the KMZ file. Any media on the web won't be packaged with it.

  • If you download a KMZ file, and then save it as a KML file, your placemarks will refer to the images in the original KMZ file. Anyone else who tries to use your new KML file won't see the images, since they're on your hard drive rather than packaged in a KMZ file.


Discussion and Feedback

Have questions about this tutorial? Want to give us some feedback? Visit the Google Earth Help Community to discuss it with others.


Источник: https://www.google.com/earth/outreach/learn/packaging-content-in-a-kmz-file/

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This network is connected to the physical network via an internal router and docker configures this router to forward certain ports through to the containers within. With a virtual tuner like xTeVe, you can disguise the IPTV playlists as the regular TV channels that can be played by Plex. Basics of xTeVe: you add your iptv playlist and epg to xTeVe (I believe you could add your homerun too) Filter the channels you want to show by category (Plex can only handle 480 as a maximum, which may include the Homerun) Map your channels which is sorting, changing channel numbers, matching epg to channel (if needed). FreeNAS also has many plugins that allow for the install of "apps". (2020-10-23, 04:08 PM)jad3675 Wrote: Bit of a necro-bump, but I've been playing around with v5 (latest version on ubuntu 20. Docker is a lightweight virtualization application that gives you the ability to run thousands of containers created by developers from all over the world on DSM. Plex Pass and an IPTV Subscription. No registration, no ads, no plugin required. The table below is a quick look. - Plugins - Plex Forum. Tvheadend Install. Other interfaces to clients can easily be developed as plugins as well. Hi Can anyone tell me where i can get the Plex DVR API plugin for openATV. 31 Comments. If you use WebGrab+Plus and have some problems, here is the place to get help. facebook twitter whatsapp reddit pinterest vk instagram youtube Popular Posts. 2021: Author: brevetti. Create, edit, sort m3u playlists online, EPG, and more! Are you new to m3u4u?. Here is a link to the files. See full list on smarthomebeginner. NET Core构建的,可以将Streamlink 用 作 Jellyfin 的通道提供程序。. m3u and xteve. 10 or later from the Tools > Update OS page. Hi all, I wrote a Tvheadend plugin for Emby. It won't change very often. DomainSherpa. The table below is a quick look. El programa freepremium Plex media server es una de las aplicaciones mas usadas para la gestion en red de nuestro contenido multimedia, que nos permite reunir en una sola biblioteca todo nuestros archivos de audio y video, para a continuacion reproducirlos con Plex media Server. Netflix Codes. Best Premium Photoshop Plugins. A Plex IPTV plugin, such as this one, reads live streams from an IPTV m3u file and passes them to Plex for playing. exe file, for example if you extracted it on Your desktop, type in the command prompt CD C:\Users\Your_user_name\Desktop\NSSM_folder_name\win64. Jellyfin has none of the free content options that Plex offers. net account (or create one if needed). get a proxy for m3u -> plex, personal recommendation xteve depending now if you need a seperate guide, setup guide2go (xteve dockers have them included) use the xteve tuner in plex in case of xml guide data, use xml guide in plex, otherwise PMS guide enjoy Edited May 19 by alturismo. Streamline invoice receipt, automate workflows, accelerate approvals and make electronic payments using a single solution. ; Find the "name" tab and name the application "Emby Server". Views: 42695: Published: 14. Hot Network Questions The meaning of "company" in "Pooh and company". On Roku, the stream tries to buffer a few times then just dies while gpustat shows 0 sessions. The Emby IPTV plugin makes it easier for you to bookmark or store links to video files found on the web, presenting them on an easy-to-use interface, where you can click them and start watching. Listas De Canales M3U de IPTV Actualizadas Enero 2021. You can choose any name you desire for the new application, but. Only polls will be posted here. FreeNAS also has many plugins that allow for the install of "apps". Client: 25 MB: This installer includes the Vault client. Play chess in a clean interface. Read on to know more details!. Roku both had issues and the GPU statistics plugin was showing 0 sessions. mkv is a Matroska container file and accepts video, audio and subtitle streams, so ffmpeg will try to select one of each type. Create and manage users and grant access to your repositories. it Xteve plugin Affordable dedicated servers, starting at /mo with SSD storage and unmetered bandwidth. With a normal IPTV provider, NextPVR would only deal with one layer of 302 redirect. June 21, 2021. Play 4K/360° video/music/DVD/IPTV, download MP4 MP3, mirror & record iDevice screen, DLNA stream media files. Stalker Portal (MAG) 6 credits/year & playlist. Netflix Codes. If you want to use a different editor, that's OK, skip ahead to the next step: Test drive. Start the command prompt (Win+S -> cmd) and navigate to nssm. Learn how to bypass ESPN+ live blackout restrictions. Description Mainly purpose for this article is to guide you on how to setup and configure VLC player to retrieve camera RTSP streaming. More info at contact#IRCChannels. By default, the browser downloads any m3u8 and mpd files that were requested. Unfortunately Plex has decided to retire the entire plugin system. Esperamos que este mismo método funcione durante mucho tiempo ya que algunas veces suelen dejar de funcionar. Certified images also include support and guarantee compatibility with Docker Enterprise. Draw your cross section in a graphics program (like Adobe Illustrator) and save it to your desktop as a PNG file. Indent Guides for Visual Studio. The hugely popular built-in image repository, Docker Hub, allows you to find shared applications from other talented developers. 4 + DVB Viewer Media Server TV Server Libreelec 9 Beta mit TVHeadend 4. This results in XML that is easier to read for humans and more compact than native Java serialization. This is the first part of a series showing you how to setup Usenet Automation using Docker on a Synology NAS. com (Aired October 11, 2021) DomainSherpa - 10+11=21: Breaking News with Reza Sardeha of DAN. Accounts Payable Automation. Go through the initial setup, select the. Read on to know more details!. 0 Comentarios. Plex Pass and an IPTV Subscription. The IPTV Smarters Player is a fabulous video streaming player that allows end-users to stream content like Live TV, VOD, Series, and TV Catchup on iPhone, iPad, TvOS (Apple TV). FFmpeg must be installed on the server. After you download the installer package, double click on the file to begin the install process. Installing the plugin. Speed and low memory footprint are a crucial part of the design, making it suitable for large object graphs or systems with high message throughput. xTeVe: Version number UUID: Serial number of the xTeVe instance Available Streams: Available streams / All streams If the available streams are 0, the limit of 480 is exceeded and the filter must be used. Play chess in a clean interface. Aug 05, 2021 · Each plugin has separate instructions that could be by installing through WebTools or Kitana, from a downloaded. 2017-04-26: Users of Windows 10 Creators Update or newer should use prelease build 2. With a virtual tuner like xTeVe, you can disguise the IPTV playlists. Luminar 4 (Formerly Luminar Flex) Luminar 4 is one of the best Photoshop plugins for those who want impressive enhancements in minimal time. Tried vlc 4. As the title suggests, I wanted to explore some of the features of the new myservers plugin. Xteve plugin. For full details on what each version includes and how to upgrade, see About versions and upgrading. 0 Comentarios. sh Portable DLL. Click on any m3u8 or mpd link inside Chrome to play it directly in a new tab. Install docker engine in the host server. Toylerrr/ElegooNeptune2Integration. that are stored Firstly, download and install the CCloud TV from the app store or downloader app. it: Xteve Ffmpeg. How to Watch IPTV on Plex without IPTV Plugin for Plex? The fact that Plex closed its plugin service does not necessarily mean the end of Plex IPTV watching. FreeNAS also has many plugins that allow for the install of "apps". com - October 11, 2021 JT, Drew, and Chris Zuiker are joined by Reza Sardeha of DAN. Appearing on The Joe Rogan Experience, West Sylmar Drug Bust. Migration from tobben's TVHeadend docker should work fine but you may need to reconfigure xmltv. gz use tar xvzf PACKAGENAME. Joe Rogan Wife. WebEPG is a plugin provided with MediaPortal 2. Try free for 14-days. If you want to use the dev branch use the tag tellytv/telly:dev or if you need ffmpeg tellytv/telly:dev-ffmpeg. Therefore I want to download/install xTeVe on a Raspberry Pi. Netflix Codes. I see these have all been used by everyone here @ r/plex but I am wondering if anyone has tried all of these and could give a recommendation as to which works best for use on a Windows 10 PMS. Client: 25 MB: This installer includes the Vault client. xTeVe can merge multiple M3U and XMLTV files, and send it to your preferred Media Center. Best Premium Photoshop Plugins. In contrast, Emby supports only podcasts and that too only Emby premiere subscription. The perfect home for your teams' applications. Python script within a Pipenv as a windows service with NSSM. While the plugin enjoys Twitch’s official support, it still. Install docker engine in the host server. Once upon a time, installing Plex IPTV plugins was a good way to watch IPTV on Plex. Thus you don’t need an IPTV plugin for Plex any longer. Yesterday Raspberry Pi released the new Raspberry Pi TV HAT, a DVB-T2 Digital TV receiver add on for the Raspberry Pi. (I'm on a 4g sim, that can sometimes go a bit flaky). You can choose any name you desire for the new application, but. 0 Comentarios. type jar xvf in front of your file name, remembering to leave space before the start of your file name. Google Keep Chrome Extension. VLC or CVLC must be installed on the server. IPTV4K service uses a media controller app called 'Smart IPTV', this app is free to use for a period of seven days, you will then be asked to make a one-time donation of € 5. NextPVR makes it easy to watch or record live TV, and provides great features like series recordings, web scheduling, iPhone/iPad client application, Kodi integration etc. it Xteve plugin Affordable dedicated servers, starting at /mo with SSD storage and unmetered bandwidth. 2021: Author: escursioni. xml are created faster. Now select the Page View to see all the channels provided by this app in the groups of 10. Integrated Plex Channels provide users with access to a growing number of online content providers such as YouTube, Vimeo, TEDTalks, and CNN among others. Your personal Emby Server automatically converts and streams your media on-the-fly to play on any device. VLC or CVLC must be installed on the server. With a virtual tuner like xTeVe, you can disguise the IPTV playlists as the regular TV channels that can be played by Plex. Appearing on The Joe Rogan Experience, West Sylmar Drug Bust. posted 2020-Sep-10, 10:04 am AEST ref: whrl. It has everything you'd expect from a polished Plex plugin, including high-definition video and straightforward content browsing by category. 16 Oct 2020 #3 Gracias. But IPTV on Plex does not work as well as it used to before 2019. plex最新的安卓app已经砍掉了插件的功能,网上的一些旧版本的破解无限制版本可以用插件功能,我用的版本是6. go - Line: 29. Tuner support varies depending on the platform it's installed in, but in cross the various platforms NextPVR supports a wide range of digital tuners including DVB-S/S2, DVB-T/T2, DVB-C, DMB-T, ATSC and QAM. We created a step-by-step user guide to help you set up the HAT and create a Tvheadend server for streaming Digital TV to devices on your network. dll that is found in the folder where is installed the VLC software. Because ESPN uses your IP address to determine your location, you will need access to a VPN if you want to bypass live blackouts for live streams and for some out-of-market replays. Docker Inc. Gentellela Free Bootstrap Admin Template. 3, tvHeadEnd for recording back end, Emby Clients: 3 Nvidia Shields, 3 FireTV, 3 Win10 Pro PC Clients #2 09-16-2016, 06:43 PM. Share images using Docker Hub. You can also use this to get more exhaustive list: vlc -H. Tvheadend Install. Kodi is available for multiple operating-systems and hardware platforms, featuring a 10-foot user interface for use with televisions and remote controls. But since GitHub changes our plugin's directory name every time we deploy a release, WordPress won't be able to find our plugin. Download the installer package from the VLC download page for Windows. This is a super clean and elegant WordPress theme for every bloggers. Jellyfin - An actively maintained open source personal media server (forked from the last open-source version of Emby and actively developed since). IPTV supplies high quality, progressive media and companies that educate, inform, enrich and inspire Iowans throughout the state. Modelled after the Gallien-Krueger MB150 amp, the GK Amplification 2 LE can be used as a standalone application or as a VST/AAX/AU plugin. Rogan's motivation for the sauna was inspired by Dr. About Plex Xteve Setup Guide. 12 Most Popular Working Plex Plugins — Tested October 2021) 1. TXT file containing all the command-line options. Free Download. Win 10 Update. Easily create mathematical equations, formulas and quizzes. The table below is a quick look. Try free for 14-days. Project Documentation for TrueCharts. Read on to know more details!. This video player app is easy to use and yet highly efficient with a powerful player, attractive and very impressive layout, and most importantly user-friendly. HTTP Live Streaming / HLS / m3u8 video support on all browsers mobile or desktop. Instalacion Xteve y configuracion Plex media server. It is not intended as a standalone plugin, but required by OnlineVideos or TvService. Read on to know more details!. Install docker engine in the host server. it Xteve plugin Affordable dedicated servers, starting at /mo with SSD storage and unmetered bandwidth. Best Premium Photoshop Plugins. In both instances the quality has not been acceptable. Here is a link to the files. Put the lib directory somewhere the application can find it, and set that VlcLibDirectory equal to a new DirectoryInfo (path to dir). Official Images. /24 I have installed the plugins LiveTVH on the PLex server and tvhProxy on each TVHeadend Server - I can see the tvhProxy is running on each TVH server. This plugin checks any links to see if they match. Use automated builds and webhooks for easy integration into your development pipeline. It's connected to our 58″ 4K Samsung TV and became the hub for our family's media consumption, though. 6 SilverStone GD04S, Intel DH77EB, Intel G1610 CPU, 4GB RAM,,Corsair 4GB, Be quiet!. They do this currently in 22 markets - mostly large cities - and it is funded by a $5/monthly donation if you want to stream or watch for more than 15 minutes at a time. Guides can be displayed at the indent specified in your settings, regardless of tabs or spaces, or wherever text has been indented to. Plex really needs to add some sort of search feature for matching the EPG channels. XMLTV is a set of programs to process TV (tvguide) listings and help manage your TV viewing, storing listings in an XML-based format. Docker Inc. Xteve is a program you can run in the background on your server that allows you to import multiple M3U playlists and combine them, customize the channel numbers, M3U Editor Jellyfin Plugin is a great plugin created by MrChips that allows you to customize an M3U for use in Jellyfin. plex最新的安卓app已经砍掉了插件的功能,网上的一些旧版本的破解无限制版本可以用插件功能,我用的版本是6. Overview xTeVe. Kodi is available for multiple operating-systems and hardware platforms, featuring a 10-foot user interface for use with televisions and remote controls. I've also tried xteve but getting stuck that way. Disabling plugins to fight piracy) have suggested that there could more such moves. To generate and position a vertical cross section model in Google Earth: 1. Las listas de canales son totalmente gratuitas, las cuales las actualizamos al instante ante cualquier…. Netflix Codes. I have been using the Synology community packages for quite some time as they were convenient to install from package manager but with…. QVR Pro can be also used with a series of apps, such as face recognition and door access control, making it versatile for a range of scenarios. AlternativeTo is a free service that helps you find better alternatives to the products you love and hate. Configuring it using the web interface is almost self-explanatory, but here is a very detailed documentation: github. MyWiFi TV is an affordable IPTV Application that allows. This was easy enough. I created a 'dawg' account, but how would I install the xteve bin file as dawg. JailBreak a Roku using Plex: Step 1: On your Roku remote click on the home button. Xteve plugin. Gotify - A simple server for sending and receiving messages. This is, of course, much cheaper. Social Plugin. A Plex IPTV plugin, such as this one, reads live streams from an IPTV m3u file and passes them to Plex for playing. I found the Internet TV installer. The Twitch Plex plugin is a great way to bring your favorite streams to your TV. I didn't have a clue about the pvswf part of the command line. vlc -p module --advanced --help-verbose. When creating a fork, the xTeVe GitHub account must be changed from the source code or the update function disabled. 0 Gbps stream (and occasionally thinks I'm watching a movie from my library instead of the DVR stream). IPTV vs Satellite tv - Summary and conclusion. that are stored Firstly, download and install the CCloud TV from the app store or downloader app. Make and receive secure and convenient electronic payments using a solution trusted by 450,000+ member businesses. Publicar un comentario. Plex Pass and an IPTV Subscription. Browse over 100,000 container images from software vendors, open-source projects, and the community. xml, channels. Ombi is a self-hosted web application that automatically gives your shared Plex or Emby users the ability to request content by themselves! Ombi can be linked to multiple TV Show and Movie DVR tools to create a seamless end-to-end experience for your users. Using Apache. Share images using Docker Hub. 0 Beta today, doesn't even run but changed a few things, more experimentation to go. Tvheadend Install. com partnership and to announce a new deal between DAN. Bringing all of your home videos, music, and photos together into one place has never been easier. Views: 22860: Published: 4. Migration from tobben's TVHeadend docker should work fine but you may need to reconfigure xmltv. See full list on smarthomebeginner. With a virtual tuner like xTeVe, you can disguise the IPTV playlists as the regular TV channels that can be played by Plex. Posted: (5 days ago) Sep 27, 2021 · The Twitch Plex plugin will enable you to see your favorite Twitch streams on your TV. Las listas de canales son totalmente gratuitas, las cuales las actualizamos al instante ante cualquier…. El programa freepremium Plex media server es una de las aplicaciones mas usadas para la gestion en red de nuestro contenido multimedia, que nos permite reunir en una sola biblioteca todo nuestros archivos de audio y video, para a continuacion reproducirlos con Plex media Server. búscalo en [+] systemplugins. Hi Can anyone tell me where i can get the Plex DVR API plugin for openATV. Buy some credits. This plugin checks any links to see if they match. QVR Pro can be also used with a series of apps, such as face recognition and door access control, making it versatile for a range of scenarios. Homedash - A simple dashboard that allows to monitor and interact with many different services. 16 Oct 2020 #3 Gracias. Yes you will need plexpass for Live TV/DVR but you can use xteve to provide a DVR to plug into plex https://xteve. 0 Gbps stream (and occasionally thinks I'm watching a movie from my library instead of the DVR stream). The table below is a quick look. Change logos, channel numbers, etc all within the JF ecosystem. Social Plugin. The price for 1 device (until the end of your subscription) is 4. 3) Shutdown this VM. 媒体存储中心Windows电脑安装plex和xteve实现免费看IPTV电视直播,Windows电脑安装plex和xteve实现免费看IPTV电视直播Plex是一款非常好用的家庭媒体管理系统,它可以把你冷冰冰的影视文件夹变得非常漂亮,并且可以多平台无缝使用,是家. Run on Windows. Kodi is a free and open source media player application developed by the XBMC Foundation, a non-profit technology consortium. in case of xTeVe this lineup represents it's own urls which then get resolved later (probaly when PLEX tunes to them). that are stored Firstly, download and install the CCloud TV from the app store or downloader app. My personal recommendation is for xTeVe just for the ease of installation and the quality of the UI. Win10-64bit + Kodi 17. Python script within a Pipenv as a windows service with NSSM. 8 ( Changelog >>) Release date: 2021-04-21. mvn maven-thucydides-plugin JAR access denied. If you want to use the dev branch use the tag tellytv/telly:dev or if you need ffmpeg tellytv/telly:dev-ffmpeg. In contrast, Emby supports only podcasts and that too only Emby premiere subscription. Configuring it using the web interface is almost self-explanatory, but here is a very detailed documentation: github. Cut the cord! You have the right to get a TV Guide from all around the world! We give you EPG to ~8000 TV channels from 116 countries! Our service was copied by many, exceeded by none. Dog World 3d Mi Cachorro Apk Full Version 3bd2c15106. xTeVe has some more magic going on, because it has some additional files which contain more informations about the channel icons and the direct callable link to tune a channel. Yeah, I tried tellytv also, no luck, worse than xTeVe. In order to play with this new plugin, I needed to update the server to 6. To live stream television through a tuner on Plex, you do require a subscription to their service to the tune of $4. --help-verbose explains things. The IPTV Smarters Player is a fabulous video streaming player that allows end-users to stream content like Live TV, VOD, Series, and TV Catchup on iPhone, iPad, TvOS (Apple TV). Search: Xteve Plex Setup Guide. I stopped the array, then headed over Tools > Update OS. xTeVe and m3u8 IPTV. I'm using M3U generated from Webif at the moment so it's the feed that comes from there. Having said that, let us have a quick look at Iron IPTV. xTeVe: Version number UUID: Serial number of the xTeVe instance Available Streams: Available streams / All streams If the available streams are 0, the limit of 480 is exceeded and the filter must be used. SUI - A startpage for your server and / or new tab page. Disabling plugins to fight piracy) have suggested that there could more such moves. Organizr - Access all your HomelabOS services in one easy place. It has everything you'd expect from a polished Plex plugin, including high-definition video and straightforward content browsing by category. Tvheadend Install. Play chess with the computer, friends or random opponents. That's right, all the lists of alternatives are crowd-sourced, and that's what makes the data. Control and schedule your home’s electrical devices with in-wall and plug-in timers. Future updates of the xteve-project would update your fork. Based on the fact, if you have any decision to watch IPTV through plug-ins, you can try Kodi IPTV function. Search: Xteve Plex Setup Guide. Other interfaces to clients can easily be developed as plugins as well. I have recently been researching IPTV integration with the Plex DVR (Plex Pass). Iron IPTV is an IPTV provider that boasts a stunning 3500 live TV channel list ranging from Sports, Cartoons, TV shows, and many more. Settings; FFmpeg can be selected as a buffer. VLC can be selected as a buffer. But since GitHub changes our plugin's directory name every time we deploy a release, WordPress won't be able to find our plugin. SageTV v9 Server: ASRock Z97 Extreme4, Intel i7-4790K @ 4. To live stream television through a tuner on Plex, you do require a subscription to their service to the tune of $4. NSSM - the Non-Sucking Service Manager. April 8th, 2021, FFmpeg 4. I have m3u and egp from provider. This means if you want to watch IPTV in Plex you’ll need to use an older version of the server, which isn’t recommended. Share images using Docker Hub. Esperamos que este mismo método funcione durante mucho tiempo ya que algunas veces suelen dejar de funcionar. QVR Pro is the network video recorder software for QNAP's QVR Pro video surveillance appliances. FFmpeg must be installed on the server. sh Portable DLL. The price for 1 device (until the end of your subscription) is 4. IPTV4K service uses a media controller app called 'Smart IPTV', this app is free to use for a period of seven days, you will then be asked to make a one-time donation of € 5. By default, only users who have administrative privileges (root users) can run containers. Docker Hub is a hosted repository service provided by Docker for finding and sharing container images with your team. Download macOS App. I see these have all been used by everyone here @ r/plex but I am wondering if anyone has tried all of these and could give a recommendation as to which works best for use on a Windows 10 PMS. You can choose any name you desire for the new application, but. posted 2020-Sep-10, 10:04 am AEST. This was easy enough. Neither HRtuner nor xTeVe do anything to the feed so it's not that, and Plex is direct playing the feed. Running the command. Download XMLTV for free. Jan 8, 2019 … xTeVe - IPTV (m3u) Proxy for Plex DVR I started xTeVe earlier this year because there was no IPTV app for the Apple TV that I was satisfied … Help on how to use IPTV , adding M3U files etc. How to Install xTeVe? xTeVe is available for multiple platforms. { "appcount": 301, "apps": [ { "appid": "03959669b24360f78cd9d5f092ac57a80074b3ac", "name": "Concourse", "sha": "986692d42d54246a445cd11157227245e39a053d", "icon. As the title suggests, I wanted to explore some of the features of the new myservers plugin. 8 ( Changelog >>) Release date: 2021-04-21. x IPTV proxy with Guide2go, zap2XML, Crond & Perl Support. it: Xteve Ffmpeg. Aun así, siempre podemos usar aplicaciones como xTeVe o TellyTv para recortar la lista y pasarla a Plex. 2º Hotbird 13º Canales totalmente ordenados en Bouquets, de nuestros favoritos preferidos de las distintas plataformas que emiten en dichos satélites. 3, tvHeadEnd for recording back end, Emby Clients: 3 Nvidia Shields, 3 FireTV, 3 Win10 Pro PC Clients #2 09-16-2016, 06:43 PM. How to Watch IPTV on Plex without IPTV Plugin for Plex? The fact that Plex closed its plugin service does not necessarily mean the end of Plex IPTV watching. 自从得知可以使用Github Actions 云编译OpenWrt固件后,喜出望外,再也不需要在本. Therefore I want to download/install xTeVe on a Raspberry Pi. Just search for "xteve" and pick the one named "bl0m1/xtevedocker". I bought an Nvidia Shield (2017 model) on sale for $140 at the end of 2018 and am amazed by how much this tiny device can accomplish. With a virtual tuner like xTeVe, you can disguise the IPTV playlists as the regular TV channels that can be played by Plex. Based on the fact, if you have any decision to watch IPTV through plug-ins, you can try Kodi IPTV function. Open a console. Migration from tobben's TVHeadend docker should work fine but you may need to reconfigure xmltv. Aun así, siempre podemos usar aplicaciones como xTeVe o TellyTv para recortar la lista y pasarla a Plex. 自从得知可以使用Github Actions 云编译OpenWrt固件后,喜出望外,再也不需要在本. Jan 8, 2019 … xTeVe - IPTV (m3u) Proxy for Plex DVR I started xTeVe earlier this year because there was no IPTV app for the Apple TV that I was satisfied … Help on how to use IPTV , adding M3U files etc. posted 2020-Sep-10, 10:04 am AEST. Get The IPTV Bundle for Plex This is a simple Plex Media Server plugin for your Plex PC that will read live m3u stream files. For example to be able to see what jails are currently installed, you will have to have SSH enabled if you're a command line geek, you can. This blog is to provide you with daily outfit ideas and share my personal style. Patreon is empowering a new generation of creators. 265 decoding delivers the ultra-high definition resolution. See full list on smarthomebeginner. When creating a fork, the xTeVe GitHub account must be changed from the source code or the update function disabled. Web interface EPG source: PMS. This results in XML that is easier to read for humans and more compact than native Java serialization. Hot Network Questions The meaning of "company" in "Pooh and company". We store information about your visit in so-called cookies. My question is, when buffer is not Feb 27, 2021 — I run Xteve in a windows VM and vpn app connected, then I setup my plex docker on the same unraid server. The following guide was last edited 6/14/2017 using Synology DSM 6. ext4 I build is identical to e2fsck I build; I suspect that means. Views: 42695: Published: 14. Docker Hub is the world's largestlibrary and community for container images. Social Plugin. So, now, repeating tests to compare m3u vs HDHR and the various cache modes. My personal recommendation is for xTeVe just for the ease of installation and the quality of the UI. type jar xvf in front of your file name, remembering to leave space before the start of your file name. one year subscription : New Mag 424-W13 box For $125. Bringing all of your home videos, music, and photos together into one place has never been easier. This was easy enough. Best Premium Photoshop Plugins. Your personal Emby Server automatically converts and streams your media on-the-fly to play on any device. de/ User #299317 276 posts. Neither HRtuner nor xTeVe do anything to the feed so it's not that, and Plex is direct playing the feed. Show activity on this post. Hot Network Questions The meaning of "company" in "Pooh and company". Description Mainly purpose for this article is to guide you on how to setup and configure VLC player to retrieve camera RTSP streaming. verb

Google Maps Platform Root CA Migration FAQ

Key Point: This document is meant as an general aide for all our Google Maps Platform customers to guide you through the ongoing Google root CA migration. This migration will go unnoticed by most customers, but if your services are currently impacted, jump directly to section What to do in a production outage below.

This document contains the following sections:

For an more detailed overview of the ongoing Google root CA migration, see What is happening?.

Terminology

Below, we have collected a list of the most important terms you need to be familiar with for this document. For a more comprehensive overview of related terminlogy, please turn to the Google Trust Services FAQ.

SSL/TLS Certificate
A certificate binds a cryptographic key to an identity.
SSL/TLS certificates are used to authenticate and establish secure connections to websites. Certificates are issued and cryptographically signed by entities known as Certificate Authorities.
Browsers rely on certificates issued by trusted Certificate Authorities to know that the information transmitted is sent to the right server and that it is encrypted while in transit.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Secure Sockets Layer was the most widely deployed protocol used to encrypt internet communications. The SSL protocol isn't considered secure anymore and should not be used.
Transport Layer Security (TLS)
Transport Layer Security is the successor to SSL.
Certificate Authority (CA)
A Certificate Authority is like a digital passport office for devices and people. It issues cryptographically protected documents (certificates) to attest that an entity (e.g. website) is who it claims to be.
Prior to issuing a Certificate, CAs are responsible for verifying that the names in the Certificate are linked to the person or entity requesting it.
The term Certificate Authority can refer to both organizations like Google Trust Services, and to systems which issue certificates.
Root certificates store
A root certificates store contains a set of Certificate Authorities trusted by an Application Software Supplier. Most web browsers and operating systems have their own root certificates store.
To be included in a root certificates store, the Certificate Authority must fulfill strict requirements set forth by the Application Software Supplier.
Typically these include compliance with industry standards such as the CA/Browser Forum requirements.
Root Certificate Authority
A Root Certificate Authority (or more correctly, its certificate) is the topmost certificate in a certificate chain.
Root CA certificates are usually self-signed. The private keys associated with them are stored in highly secure facilities, and maintained in an offline state to protect them from unauthorized access.
Intermediate Certificate Authority
An Intermediate Certificate Authority (or more correctly, its certificate) is a certificate that is used to sign other certificates in a certificate chain.
Intermediate CAs primarily exist to enable online certificate issuance while allowing the Root CA certificate to remain offline.
Intermediate CAs are also known as Subordinate CAs.
Issuing Certificate Authority
An Issuing Certificate Authority, or more correctly, its certificate, is the certificate that is used to sign the bottom-most certificate in a certificate chain.
This bottom-most certificate is commonly called a subscriber certificate, end-entity certificate or leaf certificate. In this document we will also use the term server certificate.
Certificate chain
Certificates are linked to (cryptographically signed by) their issuer. A certificate chain is made of a leaf-certificate, all its issuer certificates and a root certificate.
Cross-signing
Application Software Suppliers' clients must update their root certificates store to include new CA certificates for them to be trusted by their products. It takes some time until products containing the new CA certificates are widely used.
To increase compatibility with older clients, CA certificates can be "cross signed" by another older established CA. This effectively creates a second CA certificate for the same identity (name & key pair).
Depending on the CAs included in their root certificates store, clients will build a different certificate chain up to a root they trust.

General information

What is happening?

Key Point: In 2021 Google will continue its multi-year migration to its own root certificate authority (CA) Google Trust Services (GTS), started in 2017. The root certificate authority is used to verify the security of all TLS connections to the Google Maps Platform. The vast majority of clients will not be affected by this change but owners of some applications, especially those who didn't take action in 2017, may need to update their services to ensure a smooth transition through the rest of the migration by following the recommendations in this document.

The big picture

In 2017, Google began a multi-year project to issue and use its own root certificates, the cryptographic signatures which are the basis of TLS internet security used by HTTPS.

After the first phase, the TLS security of Google Maps Platform services has been guaranteed by GS Root R2, a very well known and widely trusted root certificate authority (CA), which Google acquired from GMO GlobalSign to ease the transition to our own self-issued Google Trust Services (GTS) root CAs.

Practically all TLS clients (such as Web browsers, smartphones, and application servers) have trusted this root certificate, and have therefore been able to establish a secure connection to the Google Maps Platform servers during the first phase of the migration.

However, a CA can by design not issue certificates that are valid beyond the expiration time of its own certificate. As GS Root R2 expires on December 15, 2021, Google will migrate its own services to a new CA, GTS Root R1 Cross, using a certficate issued by Google's own root CA GTS Root R1.

While the vast majority of modern operating systems and TLS client libraries already trust the GTS root CAs, to also ensure a smooth transition for most legacy systems, Google has acquired a cross-sign from GMO GlobalSign using GlobalSign Root CA - R1, one of the oldest, most trusted root CAs currently available.

Therefore, most customers' Google Maps Platform clients will already recognise either (or both) of these well-trusted root CAs, and will be completely unaffected by the second phase of the migration.

This also applies to customers who took action during the first phase of the migration in 2018, presuming they at the time followed our instructions, installing all certificates from our trusted Google root CA bundle.

You should verify your systems, if the following applies:

  • your services run non-standard or legacy platforms and/or you maintain your own root certificates store
  • you did not take action in 2017-2018, during the first phase of Google's root CA migration, or you did not install the full set of certificates from the trusted Google root CA bundle

If the above applies, your clients may need to be updated with the recommended root certificates in order to be able to ensure uninterrupted Google Maps Platform use during the this phase of the migration.

Important: It is not possible for Google to identify these clients, so application owners must carry out any necessary verification on their own applications. To help this, GTS provides HTTPS test endpoints for the relevant CAs at GTS repository.

See below for further technical details. For general instructions, please refer to section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update.

We also recommend that you continue keeping your root certificates stores in sync with the above curated root CA bundle to proof your services against future root CA changes. However, these will be announced in advance. See sections How do I get updates on this migration phase? and How can I get advance notification of future migrations? for further instructions on how to stay informed.

Technical summary

Key Point:GS Root R2, the root certificate authority Google Maps Platform currently relies on will expire on December 15, 2021. Therefore, our services must switch to certificates issued by another certificate authority, GTS Root R1 Cross, and developers should expect that their Google Maps Platform clients will authenticate against this CA in the coming years. To smooth this transition, GTS Root R1 Cross is cross-signed both by Google's own GTS Root R1 and GlobalSign Root CA - R1.

As announced on March 15 2021 on the Google Security Blog, GS Root R2, the root CA Google Maps Platform has used since early 2018 will expire on December 15, 2021. Google will therefore during this year migrate to a newly issued CA GTS Root R1 Cross. This means that our services will gradually transition to TLS leaf certificates issued by this new CA.

Almost all modern TLS clients and systems are already preconfigured with the GTS Root R1 certificate or should receive it via normal software updates, and GlobalSign Root CA - R1 should even be available on older legacy systems.

However, you should verify your systems at least if both the following points apply:

  • your services run on non-standard or legacy platforms and/or you maintain your own root certificates store
  • you did not take action in 2017-2018, during the first phase of Google's root CA migration, or you did not install the full set of certificates from the trusted Google root CA bundle

Section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update provides general guidance for testing if your system will be affected.

Important: To future-proof your application, we recommend you add all certificates from the curated list in trusted Google root CA bundle to your root certificates store, and make a habit of keeping the two in sync.

See question Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle? for the full details.

How do I get updates on this migration phase?

Star public issue 186840968 for updates. This FAQ is also updated throughout the migration process, whenever we encounter topics that may be of general interest.

How can I get advance notification of future migrations?

We suggest you follow the Google Security Blog. We will also strive to update product-specific documentation as soon as possible, following the pubic announcement on the blog.

Please also subscribe to Google Maps Platform Notifications, as we regularly post updates on the forum about changes that are likely to affect a larger number of customers.

We use multiple Google services. Will the root CA migration affect all of them?

Yes, the root CA migration will happen across all Google services and APIs, but the timeline may vary per service. However, once you have verified that the root certificates stores used by your Google Maps Platform client applications contain all CAs listed in the trusted Google root CA bundle, your services should not be affected by the ongoing migration, and keeping these in sync will also protect you against future root CA changes.

See questions Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle? and Which kinds of applications are at risk of breaking? for further insights.

Section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update below also provides general instructions for testing your system.

How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update

Test your application environment against the test endpoints listed below:

  • If you are able to establish a TLS connection to the GTS Root R1 Cross test endpoint, you should be unaffected by the GS Root R2 expiration.
  • If you are able to establish a TLS connection to the GTS Root R1 test endpoint, your application will likely even be shielded from the expiration of GTS Root R1 Cross and GlobalSign Root CA - R1 in 2028.
Warning: If you fail to connect to the GTS Root R1 Cross test endpoint, you need to update your root certificates store immediately!

Your system will generally be compatible with this root CA change if:

  • your service runs on a maintained mainstream operating system, and you have kept both the operating system and the libraries your service uses patched up and you do not maintain your own root certificates store, or:
  • you followed our previous recommendations, and installed all root CAs from the trusted Google root CA bundle
Caution: Customers using specialist niche systems such as embedded devices, enterprise application and integration middleware or relational databases calling Google Maps Platform services from stored procedures, or users relying on outdated legacy browsers or operating systems that are no longer maintained may be negatively impacted by the second phase of the root CA migration, especially if they did not take action during the first one.

Possibly affected customers should immediately install the certificates from trusted Google root CA bundle to avoid future service interruptions.

Important: Even if your services are not immediately impacted, we still strongly recommend you keep your root certificates in sync with the above root CA bundle.

See question Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle? for the full details.

Is there a simple tool I can use to verify our root certificates store?

You may find two command line tools and useful in your investigations. Both are available on most platforms, and offer extensive options for testing your setup.

For instructions getting , see section Getting curl below.

Note: See section How to interpret the curl output to make sure you connect using the correct root certificates store, and interpret the output correctly. Also see section Managing your trusted certificates, if you need to export or import certificates.

The commands shown below are for version 1.1.1 or later. Versions before 1.1.1 are out of support. If you are using an earlier version, upgrade or modify these commands as necessary for your version. For instructions on getting , see section Getting OpenSSL below.

Note: See sections How to print the received server certificates in human readable form, How to convert between a PEM file and a format supported by my system, Printing certificate files using OpenSSL and OpenSSL root certificates store for further instructions on how to use OpenSSL.

You will also find further useful tools under section Where can I get the tools I need? below.

For concrete testing instructions, please see section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update.

Testing your default root certificates store

Verifying the trusted Google root CA bundle

Download the trusted Google root CA bundle, then follow these steps:

How and when will the Google root CA migration continue?

  1. First phase (migrating to GS Root R2), announced in January 2017, started in late 2017 and wrapped up in the first half of 2018.
  2. Second phase (migrating to GTS Root R1 Cross) was announced in March 2021, and will roll out over the coming months, before the expiration of GS Root R2 on December 15, 2021.

Schedules of eventual later migration phases will be announced well in advance of future certificate expirations.

However, you will be able to future proof your apps, if you keep your root certificates store in sync with the curated list of root CAs in the trusted Google root CA bundle.

Also see question Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle? for further background.

General rollout plan for each Google service

  1. The staged rollout starts in a single data center.
  2. The rollout is gradually extended to more data centers until there is global coverage.
  3. If serious issues are detected at any stage, the tests can be rolled back temporarily while the issues are addressed.
  4. Based on input from previous iterations, further Google services are included in the rollout until gradually all Google services have migrated to the new certificates.

Who will be affected, when, and where?

Increasing numbers of Google Maps Platform developers will start to receive the new certificates as new data centers are migrated over. The changes will be somewhat localized, as client requests tend to be forwarded to servers in geographically nearby data centers.

As we cannot with certainty in advance say who will be affected, when and where, we recommend all our customers already verify and future proof their services well in advance of possible Google root CA migration phases.

See section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update for additional guidance.

What to look out for

Clients that are not configured with the necessary root certificate will not be able to verify their TLS connection to the Google Maps Platform. In this situation, clients will typically issue a warning that certificate validation has failed.

Depending on their TLS configuration, clients may continue to issue a Google Maps Platform request, or they may refuse to continue with the request.

Important: In case of systematic failures, see section What to do in a production outage.

What are the minimum requirements for a TLS client to communicate with Google Maps Platform?

Google Maps Platform certificates employ DNS Subject Alternative Names (SANs), so a client's certificate handling must be able to support SANs that may include a single wildcard as the left-most label in the name, such as .

For other requirements, please refer to section What are the recommended requirements for a TLS client to communicate with Google? in the GTS FAQ.

Which kinds of applications are at risk of breaking?

The application uses the system root certificates store without any developer imposed restrictions

Google Maps Platform web service applications

If you are using a mainstream OS, e.g., Ubuntu, Red Hat, Windows 10 or Server 2019, OS X) that is still maintained and receives regular updates, your default root certificates store should already include the GTS Root R1 certificate.

If you are using a legacy OS version that no longer receives updates, you may or may not have the GTS Root R1 certificate. However, your root certificates store will most likely contain GlobalSign Root CA - R1, one of the oldest and most widely trusted root CAs.

For mobile applications calling Google Maps Platform web services directly from the end user device, guidelines from question Are mobile apps at risk of breaking? apply.

Important: Even if your application can managed with the first phase of the migration without any certificate updates, we strongly recommend future proofing your application now in one go. See question Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle? for further details.

Maps JavaScript API applications generally rely on the root certificates of the web browser running the application. See section Are JavaScript applications at risk of breaking? for more further details.

For native mobile applications using any of Maps SDK for Android, Maps SDK for iOS, Places SDK for Android or Places SDK for iOS, the same rules apply as for apps calling the Google Maps Platform web services.

See question Are mobile apps at risk of breaking? for more details.

The app uses its own certificate bundle or uses advanced security features, such as certificate pinning

You will need make sure to update your certificate bundle yourself. As discussed under question Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle?, we recommend you import all certificates from the trusted Google root CA bundle into your own root certificates store.

If you are pinning certificates or public keys for the Google domains your application connects to, you should add the certificates and public keys to the list of trusted entities in your application.

For further information about certificate or public key pinning, refer to the external resources listed under question Need more info?.

Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle?

The curated list of root CAs in the trusted Google root CA bundle includes all CAs that may plausibly be used by Google services in the foreseeable future.

Therefore, if you wish to future proof your system, we strongly recommend that you verify that your root certificates store contains all the certificates from the bundle, and make a habit of keeping the two in sync.

This is especially important if your services run on an unmaintained operating system version, you are for other reasons unable to keep your operating system and libraries patched up, or you maintain your own root certificates store.

See question How can I get advance notification of future migrations? to find out how to get updates about future root CA migrations. Routinely keeping your root certificates store in sync with the curated list will safeguard your services against future service interruptions, due to CA changes, and will keep your services running beyond the expiration of both GTS Root R1 Cross and GlobalSign Root CA - R1.

Also, please refer to question I'm building a product that connects to Google services. What CA certificates do I need to trust? in the GTS FAQ for further recommendations.

Why should I not install any leaf or intermediate CA certificates?

Warning: You should never configure your services to explicitly trust a leaf certificate or intermediate CA!

Doing so will risk breaking your application at any point we enroll a new certificate, or switch intermediate CAs. Either of these may happen at any time and without any prior notice, and it applies equally to individual server certificates, such as those served by , as well as any of our intermediate CAs, such as GTS Root R1 Cross.

To shield your services against this, you should only install root certificates from the trusted Google root CA bundle, and rely on the root certificate alone to verify the trustworthiness of the entire certificate chain anchored to it.

Any modern TLS library implementation should be able to automatically verify such chains of trust, as long as the root certificate authority is trusted.

Are JavaScript applications at risk of breaking?

The GTS root certicates are already well embedded and trusted by most modern browsers, and the cross-sign from GMO GlobalSign should ensure a smooth migration even for most end users on legacy browsers. This includes all officially supported browsers for Maps JavaScript API.

Every modern browser should allow end users to verify and usually edit which certificates the browser trusts. Although the exact location differs with each browser, the list of certificates can typically be found somewhere under Settings.

Are mobile apps at risk of breaking?

Android and Apple iOS devices still receiving regular updates from the device manufacturer are also expected to be future proof. Most older Android phone models include at least the GlobalSign Root CA - R1 certificate, although the list of trusted certificates may vary per handset manufacturer, device model and Android version.

However, support for the GTS root CAs, including GTS Root R1 may still be limited in Android versions prior to 10.

Important: As individual handset manufacturers may have chosen to include different sets of trusted root certificates, the most reliable way to verify which root certificates are available on an Android device is for the end user to verify this themselves. All Android versions starting from Android Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0) should offer the list of trusted root CAs under settings, although the actual path may vary.

For iOS devices, Apple maintains a list of trusted root CAs for each recent iOS version on its support pages. However, all iOS versions 5 and up support GlobalSign Root CA - R1.

GTS root CAs, including GTS Root R1 have been supported since iOS version 12.1.3.

See question How can I check the trusted root certificates on my mobile phone? for further details.

Important: Mobile applications using certificate or public key pinning for communicating with Google Services should be updated, as discussed in section The app uses its own certificate bundle or uses advanced security features, such as certificate pinning.

When will my browser or operating system include the Google Trust Services root certificates?

Key Point: It likely already does!

Google has over the last years worked extensively with all major third parties maintaining widely used and trusted root certificate bundles. Examples include operating system manufacturers, such as Apple and Microsoft, but also Google's own Android and ChromeOS teams; browser developers, such as Mozilla, Apple, Microsoft, but also Google's own Chrome team; manufacturers of hardware, such as phones, set-top boxes, TVs, game consoles, printers, just to name a few.

It is therefore very likely that any currently maintained system already support Google's new GTS Root CAs, including GTS Root R1, and even legacy systems are highly likely to support GlobalSign Root CA - R1, which will be used for cross-signing Google-issued certificates through the next years.

However, as third-party certificate inclusion timelines are largely beyond the control of Google, the best general advice we can offer is to make sure you regularly apply available system updates.

Select third parties, such as Mozillaʼs CA Certificate Program may have documented their own certificate inclusion timelines.

Troubleshooting

Where can I get the tools I need?

Getting curl

If your OS distribution doesn't provide , you can download it from https://curl.haxx.se/. You can either download the source and compile the tool yourself or download a pre-compiled binary, if one is available for your platform.

Getting OpenSSL

If your OS distribution doesn't provide , you can download the source from https://www.openssl.org/ and compile the tool. A list of binaries build by 3rd parties can be found via https://www.openssl.org/community/binaries.html. However, none of these builds are supported or in any specific way endorsed by the OpenSSL team.

Getting Wireshark, Tshark or Tcpdump

While most Linux distributions offer , its command-line tool and , pre-compiled versions of the first two for other OSs can be found at https://www.wireshark.org.

The source code for Tcpdump and LibPCAP can be found at https://www.tcpdump.org.

Documentation for these useful tools can be found in the Wireshark User's Guide, on the Tshark man page and on the Tcpdump man page, respectively.

Getting Java keytool

The command line tool should be shipped with every Java Development Kit (JDK) or Java Runtime Environment (JRE) version. Install these to get However, using is unlikely necessary for root certificate verification, unless your application is built using Java.

What to do in a production outage

The primary course of action for you is to install the required root certificates from the trusted Google root CA bundle into the root certificates store your application uses.

Note: This method varies per operating system, possibly even the SSL/TLS library your application uses. Therefore, please always first refer to your system documentation! However, you may still find useful information in section Managing your trusted certificates.
  1. Work together with your system administrators to upgrade your local root certificates store.
  2. Check this FAQ for pointers applicable to your system.
  3. If you need further platform- or system-specific assistance, reach out to the technical support channels offered by your system provider.
  4. For general assistance, reach out to our support team, as described in section Reaching out to Google Maps Platform support. Note: For platform-specific issues, guidance is only provided on a best effort basis.
  5. Star public issue 186840968 for further migration related updates.

Reaching out to Google Maps Platform support

Initial troubleshooting

See section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update for generic troubleshooting instructions.

Section Managing your trusted certificates may also provide valuable information, if you need to import or export root certificates.

If the issue is not resolved, and you decide to reach out to Google Maps Platform support, be prepared to also provide the following information:

  1. Where are your affected servers located?
  2. Which Google IP addresses is your service calling?
  3. Which API(s) are affected by this issue?
  4. When exactly did the issue start?
  5. Outputs of the following commands:

For instructions getting the required tools, see question Where can I get the tools I need?.

Filing a support case

Please follow the instructions for Creating a support case under Google Maps Platform Support and Resources.

When filing a support case, in addition to the data listed in section Initial troubleshooting, please also provide the following:

  • What are your public IP addresses?
  • What is the public IP address of your DNS server?
  • If possible, a tcpdump or Wireshark packet capture of the failed TLS negotiation against in PCAP format, using a sufficiently large snapshot-length to capture the entire packet without truncating it (e.g. using on older versions of ).
  • If possible, logs excerpts from your service showing the exact TLS connection failure reason, preferably with full server certificate chain information.

For instructions getting the required tools, see question Where can I get the tools I need?.

Posting on public issue 186840968

Caution: As the issue tracker is a public forum, please do not post any personally identifiable or sensitive information, such as IP addresses, email addresses, API keys or other credentials. If you need to share such information, please always file a support case, as explained in section Filing a support case, above.

When posting a comment on public issue 186840968, please include the information listed in section Initial troubleshooting.

How can I determine the public address of my DNS?

On Linux, you can run the following command:

On Windows you can use nslookup in interactive mode:

How to interpret the curl output

Running with the flags provides much useful information. Here are a few instructions for interpreting the output:

  • Lines starting with '' display output from the TLS negotiation, as well as connection termination information.
  • Lines starting with '' display the outgoing HTTP request that sends.
  • Lines starting with '' display the HTTP response it gets from the server.
  • If the protocol was HTTPS, the presence of '' or '' lines imply a successful TLS handshake.

Used TLS library and root certificate bundle

Running with the flags also prints out the used root certificates store, but the exact output may vary per system as shown here.

Output from a Red Hat Linux machine with linked against NSS may contain these lines:

Output from an Ubuntu or Debian Linux machine may contain these lines:

Output from an Ubuntu or Debian Linux machine using the Google root certificate PEM file given using the flag may contain these lines:

Caution: There are multiple widely used SSL/TLS libraries (see comparison table on the curl site), which may all be configured to use different root certificates bundles/stores. If curl has been linked against a different SSL/TLS library than your application, you might wish ensure that both point to the same root certificates store for the test results to be completely reliable.Note: If you maintain your own certificate bundle for your application or the application just uses a different store than , and you wish to verify the one used by your application, you can export the certificates from that store into a PEM file, which you can pass to using the flag. See section Managing your trusted certificates.

User agent

Outgoing requests contain the User-Agent header, which may provide useful information about and your system.

An example from a Red Hat Linux machine:

Failed TLS handshake

Lines, such as the ones in this code sample, indicate the connection was terminated mid-TLS-handshake because of an untrusted server certificate. The absence of debug output starting with or are also strong indicators of an unsuccessful connection attempt:

Successful TLS handshake

A successful TLS handshake is indicated by the presence of similar looking lines to the ones in this code sample. The cipher suite used for the encrypted connection should be listed, as should details of the accepted server certificate. Furthermore, the presence of lines starting with or indicate that payload HTTP traffic is being successfully transmitted over the TLS encrypted connection:

How to print the received server certificates in human readable form

Presuming the output is PEM formatted, e.g. the output from , you can print out the served certificate following these steps:

  • Copy the entired Base 64 encoded certificate, including header and footer:

  • Then do:

  • Then paste the contents of your copy buffer into the terminal.

  • Hit the Return key.

For example input and output, see section How to print PEM certificates in human readable form.

What do cross-signed Google certificates look like in OpenSSL?

Managing your trusted certificates

How can I check the trusted root certificates on my mobile phone?

Android trusted certificates

As mentioned under question Are mobile apps at risk of breaking?, Android has since version 4.0 allowed handset users to verify the list of trusted certificates under Settings. This table shows the exact Settings menu path:

Android versionMenu path
1.x, 2.x, 3.xN/A
4.x, 5.x, 6.x, 7.xSettings > Security > Trusted credentials
8.x, 9Settings > Security & Location > Encryption & credentials > Trusted credentials
10+Settings > Security > Advanced > Encryption & credentials > Trusted credentials

This table illustrates the likely availability of the most critical root certificates per Android version, based on manual verification using currently available Android Virtual Device (AVD) system images, falling back to the AOSP ca-certificates Git repository version history, where system images were no longer available:

Android versionGTS Root R1GlobalSign Root CA - R1GlobalSign Root R2 (valid until Dec 15, 2021)
2.3, 3.2, 4.x, 5.x, 6.x, 7.x, 8.x, 9
10+

Updating the Android system root certificates store is generally not possible without a firmware update or rooting the device. However, on most Android versions that are still in wide use, the current set of trusted root certificates is likely to provide uninterrupted service for multiple years to come, beyond the effective lifetime of most currently existing devices.

Beginning with version 7.0, Android offers application developers a secure method for adding trusted certificates which are only trusted by their application. This is done by bundling the certificates with the application and creating a custom network security configuration, as described in the Android Best Practices for Security & PrivacyNetwork Security Configuration training document.

However, as third-party application developers will not be able to influence the network security configuration of traffic originating from the Google Play Services APK, such efforts would likely only provide a partial workaround.

On older legacy devices, your only available option would be to rely on user-added CAs, either installed by a corporate group policy applied to the end user device, or by the end users themselves.

iOS Trust Store

While Apple does not directly show its default set of trusted root certificates to the handset user, the company has links to the sets of trusted root CAs for iOS versions 5 and up from the Apple Support articles:

However, any additional certificates installed on the iOS device should be visible under Settings > General > Profile. If no additional certificates are installed, the Profile menu item may not be displayed.

This table illustrates the availability of the most critical root certificates per iOS version, based on the above sources:

iOS versionGTS Root R1GlobalSign Root CA - R1GlobalSign Root R2 (valid until Dec 15, 2021)
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.0
12.1.3+

Where is my system root certificates store and how can I update it?

The location of the default root certificates store varies with operating system and used SSL/TLS library. However, on most Linux distributions, the default root certificates can be found under one of the following paths:

  • : Debian, Ubuntu, older RHEL and CentOS versions
  • and : Fedora, newer RHEL and CentOS versions
  • : OpenSUSE

Other certificate paths may include:

  • : Debian, Ubuntu
  • : RHEL, CentOS

Some of the certificates in these directories are likely symbolic links to files in other directories.

Caution: Just adding a new certificate to these paths may not be enough. To reconfigure your system to start using them, you will likely need to run a separate command, such as (Debian, Ubuntu) or (Fedora, RHEL and CentOS), which create the actual root certificate bundle that is used.Important: Your application may also have been configured to use a custom certificate store or root certificate bundle, so make sure you update the correct one!

OpenSSL root certificates store

For applications using OpenSSL, you can check the configured location of its installed components, including the default root certificates store using the following command:

The command prints out , which corresponds to the top level directory the library and its configurations can be found under:

The root certificates store is located in the subdirectory.

Note: This directory may contain symbolic links that recursively point to other locations, e.g. to the default system root certificates store, as is shown below!

If OpenSSL relies on the default system root certificates store as in the example above, check the top-level section Where is my system root certificates store and how can I update it? to ensure the system root certificate bundle is up to date.

For instructions getting , see section Getting OpenSSL.

Java root certificates store

Java applications might use their own root certificates store, which on Linux systems is typically located at or , which can be managed using the Java command-line tool.

Warning: Java only imports the first certificate from a given PEM file. Therefore, you need to split up before proceeding with importing the recommended certificates. See question How do I extract individual certificates from roots.pem? for further instructions.

To import an individual certificate into your Java certificate store, issue the following command:

Just replace with the certificate file corresponding to each recommended root certificate, with a unique but meaningful certificate alias, and with the certificate database file used in your environment.

Note: You should be prompted if the certificate you attempt to import already exists in the your certificate store.

For further information, please refer to the following Oracle and Stack Overflow articles:

Mozilla NSS root certificates store

Applications using Mozilla NSS may by default also use a system-wide certificate database typically located under , or a user-specific default store under .

For updating your NSS database, use the tool.

Important: NSS requires a nickname for each imported certificate, so you need to split up to import each certificate separately. See question How do I extract individual certificates from roots.pem? for further instructions.

To import an individual certificate file into your NSS database, issue the following command:

Just replace with the certificate file corresponding to each recommended root certificate, with a meaningful certificate nickname, and with the certificate database path used in your environment.

For further information, please refer to the official NSS Tools certutil manual, as well as your operating system documentation.

Microsoft .NET root certificates store

Windows .NET developers may find at least the following Microsoft articles useful for updating their root certificates store:

Certificate file formats

What is a PEM file?

Privacy-Enhanced Mail (PEM) is a de-facto standard textual file format for storing and sending cryptographic certificates, keys, etc., formalized as a de-jure standard in RFC 7468.

While the file format itself is human readable, the Base64 encoded binary certificate data information is not. However, the PEM specification permits emitting explanatory text either before or after the text encoded certificate body, and many tools use this feature to also provide a clear-text summary of the most relevant data elements in a certificate.

Tools, such as can also be used to decode the entire certificate into human-readable form. See section How to print PEM certificates in human readable form for more info.

What is a ".crt" file?

Tools that allow exporting of certificates in PEM format commonly use the file extension ".crt" to indicate the file uses a textual encoding.

What is a DER file?

Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) is a standardized binary format for encoding certificates. Certificates in PEM files are typically Base64 encoded DER certificates.

What is a ".cer" file?

An exported file with a ".cer" suffix may contain a PEM-encoded certificate, but more typically a binary, usually DER-encoded certificate. By convention, ".cer" files generally only contain a single certificate.

My system refuses to import all certificates from roots.pem

Some systems, e.g., Java , may only import a single certificate from a PEM file, even if it contains several. See question How do I extract individual certificates from roots.pem? to see how the file can first be split up.

You can split up into its component certificates using the following simple bash script:

This should create a number of individual PEM files similar to the ones listed here:

The individual PEM files, such as can then be imported separately, or further converted into a file format your certificate store accepts.

How to convert between a PEM file and a format supported by my system

The OpenSSL toolkit command-line tool can be used to convert files between all commonly used certificate file formats. Instructions for converting from a PEM file to most commonly used certificate file formats are listed below.

For a full list of available options, check the official OpenSSL Command Line Utilities documentation.

For instructions getting , see section Getting OpenSSL.

How do I convert a PEM file to DER format?

Using you can issue the following command to convert a file from PEM to DER:

How do I convert a PEM file to PKCS #7?

Using you can issue the following command to convert a file from PEM to PKCS #7:

How do I convert a PEM file to PKCS #12 (PFX)?

Using you can issue the following command to convert a file from PEM to PKCS #12:

You need to provide a file password when creating a PKCS #12 archive. Make sure to store the password somewhere safe, if you don't immediately import the PKCS #12 file into your system.

Listing, printing and exporting certificates from your root certificates store

How do I export a certificate from the Java Key Store as a PEM file?

Using you can issue the following command to list all certificates in your certificate store, together with the alias you can use to export each one:

Just replace with the certificate database file used in your environment. This command will also show the alias of each certificate, which you will need if you wist to export it.

To export an individual certificate in PEM format, issue the following command:

Just replace with the certificate database file used in your environment, and provide an and corresponding to the certificate you wish to export.

For further information, please refer to the Java Platform, Standard Edition Tools Reference: keytool manual.

How do I export certificates from the NSS root certificates store as a PEM file?

Using you can issue the following command to list all certificates in your certificate store, together with the nickname you can use to export each one:

Just replace with the certificate database path used in your environment. This command will also show the nickname of each certificate, which you will need if you wist to export it.

To export an individual certificate in PEM format, issue the following command:

Just replace with the certificate database path used in your environment, and provide a and corresponding to the certificate you wish to export.

For further information, please refer to the official NSS Tools certutil manual, as well as your operating system documentation.

How to print PEM certificates in human readable form

In the following examples we presume you have the file with the following contents:

Printing certificate files using OpenSSL

Issuing the command

should output something similar to:

For instructions getting , see section Getting OpenSSL.

Printing certificates using Java keytool

Issuing the following command

should output something similar to:

For instructions getting , see section Getting Java keytool.

How do I see what certificates are installed in my root certificates store?

This varies per operating system and SSL/TLS library. However, the tools that allows importing and exporting certificates to and from the root certificates store typically also provide an option to list the installed certificates.

Also, if you have successfully exported the trusted root certificates into PEM files, or your root certificates store already contains stored PEM files, you can try opening the files in any text editor, as it is a plain text file format.

The PEM file may be properly labeled, providing human readable information of the associated certificate authority (example from the trusted Google root CA bundle):

The file may also just contain the certificate part. In such cases, the name of the file, such as may describe which CA the certificate belongs to. The certificate string between the and tokens is also guaranteed to be unique for each CA.

Note: If tools, such as and can be installed on your system see sections How to convert between a PEM file and a format supported by my system and How to print PEM certificates in human readable form above for tips on how to display your extracted system certificates in human readable form.

However, even if you lack the above tools, as each certificate in the trusted Google root CA bundle is properly labeled, you can reliably match the root CAs from the bundle aganist the ones from your root certificates store either by , or by comparing PEM file certificate strings.

Web browsers may use their own root certificates store, or rely on the default one provided by the operating. However, all modern browsers should allow you to manage or at least view the set of root CAs they trust. See question Are JavaScript applications at risk of breaking? for further details.

For mobile phone specific instructions, see the separate question How can I check the trusted root certificates on my mobile phone?.

Appendix

Need more info?

Always rely primarily on your operating system documentation, the documentation of your application programming language(s), as well as the documentation from any external libraries that your application is using.

Any other source of information including this FAQ may be outdated or otherwise incorrect, and should not be taken as authoritative. However, you may still find useful information on many of the Stack Exchange Q&A communities, as well as sites such as AdamW on Linux and more and the confirm blog, among others.

Please also check out the Google Trust Services FAQ.

For further details about advanced topics, such as certificate pinning, you may find the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Certificate and Public Key Pinning article and Pinning Cheat Sheet informative. For Android specific instructions, please refer to the official Android Best Practices for Security & PrivacySecurity with HTTPS and SSL training document. For discussion about certificate vs. public key pinning on Android, you may find Matthew Dolan's blog post Android Security: SSL Pinning useful.

The Android Best Practices for Security & PrivacyNetwork Security Configuration training document and JeroenHD's blog post Android 7 Nougat and certificate authorities provide further information about managing additional trusted certificates on Android.

For a comprehensive list of root CAs trusted by AOSP, refer to the ca-certificates Git repository. For any versions based on inofficial Android forks, e.g. LineageOS, refer to the appropriate repositories provided by the OS vendor.

Источник: https://developers.google.com/maps/root-ca-faq

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Google Maps Platform Root CA Migration FAQ

Key Point: This document is meant as an general aide for all our Google Maps Platform customers to guide you through the ongoing Google root CA migration. This migration will go unnoticed by most customers, but if your services are currently impacted, jump directly to section What to do in a production outage below.

This document contains the following sections:

For an more detailed overview of the ongoing Google root CA migration, see What is happening?.

Terminology

Below, we have collected a list of the most important terms you need to be familiar with for this document. For a more comprehensive download google earth pro+serial number of related terminlogy, please turn to the Google Trust Services FAQ.

SSL/TLS Certificate
A certificate binds a cryptographic key to an identity.
SSL/TLS certificates are used to authenticate and establish secure connections to websites. Certificates are issued and cryptographically signed by entities known as Certificate Authorities.
Browsers rely on certificates issued by trusted Certificate Authorities to know that the information transmitted is sent to the right server and that it is encrypted while in transit.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Secure Sockets Layer was the most widely deployed protocol used to encrypt internet communications. The SSL protocol isn't considered secure anymore and should not be used.
Transport Layer Security (TLS)
Transport Layer Security is the successor to SSL.
Certificate Authority (CA)
A Certificate Authority is like a digital passport office for devices and people. It issues cryptographically protected documents (certificates) to attest that an entity (e.g. website) is who it claims to be.
Prior to issuing a Certificate, CAs are responsible for verifying that the names in the Certificate are linked to the person or entity requesting it.
The term Certificate Authority can refer to both organizations like Google Trust Services, and to systems which issue certificates.
Root certificates store
A root certificates store contains a set of Certificate Authorities trusted by an Application Software Supplier. Most web browsers and operating systems have their own root certificates store.
To be included in a root certificates store, the Certificate Authority must fulfill strict requirements set forth by the Application Software Supplier.
Typically these include compliance with industry standards such as the CA/Browser Forum requirements.
Root Certificate Authority
A Root Certificate Authority (or more correctly, its certificate) is the topmost certificate in a certificate chain.
Root CA certificates are usually self-signed. The private keys associated with them are stored in highly secure facilities, and maintained in an offline state to protect them from unauthorized access.
Intermediate Certificate Authority
An Intermediate Certificate Authority (or more correctly, its certificate) is a certificate that is used to sign other certificates in a certificate chain.
Intermediate CAs primarily exist to enable online certificate issuance while allowing the Root CA certificate to remain offline.
Intermediate CAs are also known as Subordinate CAs.
Issuing Certificate Authority
An Issuing Certificate Authority, or more correctly, its certificate, is the free folder lock software that is used to sign the bottom-most certificate in a certificate chain.
This bottom-most certificate is commonly called a subscriber certificate, end-entity certificate or leaf certificate. In this document we will also use the term server certificate.
Certificate chain
Certificates are linked to (cryptographically signed by) their issuer. A certificate chain is made of a leaf-certificate, all its issuer certificates and a root certificate.
Cross-signing
Application Software Suppliers' clients must update their root certificates store to include new CA certificates for them to be trusted by their products. It takes some time until products containing the new CA certificates are widely used.
To increase compatibility with older clients, CA certificates can be "cross signed" by another older established CA. This effectively creates a second CA certificate for the same identity (name & key pair).
Depending on the CAs included in their root certificates store, clients will build a different certificate chain up to a root they trust.

General information

What is happening?

Key Point: In 2021 Google will continue its multi-year migration to its own root certificate authority (CA) Google Trust Services (GTS), started in 2017. The root certificate authority is used to verify the security of all TLS connections to the Google Maps Platform. The vast majority of clients will not be affected by this change but owners of some applications, especially those who didn't take action in 2017, may need to update their services to ensure a smooth transition through the rest of the migration by following the recommendations in this document.

The big picture

In 2017, Google began a multi-year project to issue and use its own root certificates, the cryptographic signatures which are the basis of TLS internet security used by HTTPS.

After the first phase, the TLS security of Google Maps Platform services has been guaranteed by GS Root R2, a very well known and widely trusted root certificate authority (CA), which Google acquired from GMO GlobalSign to ease the transition to our own self-issued Google Trust Services (GTS) root CAs.

Practically all TLS clients (such as Web browsers, smartphones, and application servers) have trusted this root certificate, and have therefore been able to establish a secure connection to the Google Maps Platform servers during the first phase of the migration.

However, a CA can by design not issue certificates that are valid beyond the expiration time of its own certificate. As GS Root R2 expires on December 15, 2021, Google will migrate its own services to a new CA, GTS Root R1 Cross, using a certficate issued by Google's own root CA GTS Root R1.

While the vast majority of modern operating systems and TLS client libraries already trust the GTS root CAs, to also ensure a smooth transition for most legacy systems, Google has acquired a cross-sign from GMO GlobalSign using GlobalSign Root CA - R1, one of the oldest, most trusted root CAs currently available.

Therefore, most customers' Google Maps Platform clients will already recognise either (or both) of these well-trusted root CAs, and will be completely unaffected by the second phase of the migration.

This also applies to customers who took action during the first phase of the migration in 2018, presuming they at the time followed our instructions, installing all certificates from our trusted Google root CA bundle.

You should verify your systems, if the following applies:

  • your services run non-standard or legacy platforms and/or you maintain your own root certificates store
  • you did not take action in 2017-2018, during the first phase of Google's root CA migration, or you did not install the full set of certificates from the trusted Google root CA bundle

If the above applies, your clients may need to be updated with the recommended root certificates in order to be able to ensure uninterrupted Google Maps Platform use during the this phase of the migration.

Important: It is not possible for Google to identify these clients, so application owners must carry out any necessary verification on their own applications. To help this, GTS provides HTTPS test endpoints for the relevant CAs at GTS repository.

See below for further technical details. For general instructions, please refer to section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update.

We also recommend that you continue keeping your root certificates stores in sync with the above curated root CA bundle to proof your services against future root CA changes. However, these will be announced in advance. See sections How do I get updates on this migration phase? and How can I get advance notification of future migrations? for further instructions on how to stay informed.

Technical summary

Key Point:GS Root R2, the root certificate authority Google Maps Platform currently relies on will expire on December 15, 2021. Therefore, our services must switch to certificates issued by another certificate authority, GTS Root R1 Cross, and developers should expect that their Google Maps Platform clients will authenticate against this CA in the coming years. To smooth this transition, GTS Root R1 Cross is cross-signed both by Google's own GTS Root R1 and GlobalSign Root CA - R1.

As announced on March 15 2021 on the Google Security Blog, GS Root R2, the root CA Google Maps Platform has used since early 2018 will expire on December 15, 2021. Google will therefore during this year migrate to a newly issued CA GTS Root R1 Cross. This means that our services will gradually transition to TLS leaf certificates issued by this new CA.

Almost all modern TLS clients and systems are already preconfigured with the GTS Root R1 certificate or should receive it via normal software updates, and GlobalSign Root CA - R1 should even be available on older legacy systems.

However, you should verify your systems at least if both the following points apply:

  • your services run on non-standard or legacy platforms and/or you maintain your own root certificates store
  • you did not take action in 2017-2018, during the first phase of Google's root CA migration, or you did not install the full set of certificates from the trusted Google root CA bundle

Section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update provides general guidance for testing if your system will be affected.

Important: To future-proof your application, we recommend you add all certificates from the curated list in trusted Google root CA bundle to your root certificates store, and make a habit of keeping the two in sync.

See question Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle? for the full details.

How do I get updates on this migration phase?

Star public issue 186840968 for updates. This FAQ is also updated throughout the migration process, whenever we encounter topics that may be of general interest.

How can I get advance notification of future migrations?

We suggest you follow the Google Security Blog. We will also strive to update product-specific documentation as soon as possible, following the pubic announcement on the blog.

Please also subscribe to Google Maps Platform Notifications, as we regularly post updates on the forum about changes that are likely to affect a larger number of customers.

We use multiple Google services. Will the root CA migration affect all of them?

Yes, the root CA migration will happen across all Google services and APIs, but the timeline may vary per service. However, once you have verified that the root certificates stores used by your Google Maps Platform client applications contain all CAs listed in the trusted Google root CA bundle, your services should not be affected by the ongoing migration, and keeping these in sync will also protect you against future root CA changes.

See questions Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle? and Which kinds of applications are at risk of breaking? for further insights.

Section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update below also provides general instructions for testing your system.

How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update

Test your application environment against the test endpoints listed below:

  • If you are able to establish a TLS connection to the GTS Root R1 Cross test endpoint, you should be unaffected by the GS Root R2 expiration.
  • If you are able to establish a TLS connection to the GTS Root R1 test endpoint, your application will likely even be shielded from the expiration of GTS Root R1 Cross and GlobalSign Root CA - R1 in 2028.
Warning: If you fail to connect to the GTS Root R1 Cross test endpoint, you need to update your root certificates store immediately!

Your system will generally be compatible with this root CA change if:

  • your service runs on a maintained mainstream operating system, and you have kept both the operating system and the libraries your service uses patched up and you do not maintain your own root certificates store, or:
  • you followed our previous recommendations, and installed all root CAs from the trusted Google root CA bundle
Caution: Customers using specialist niche systems such as embedded devices, enterprise application and integration middleware or relational databases calling Google Maps Platform services from stored procedures, or users relying on outdated legacy browsers or operating systems that are no longer maintained may be negatively impacted by the second phase of the root CA migration, especially if they did not take action during the first one.

Possibly affected customers should immediately install the certificates from trusted Google root CA bundle to avoid future service interruptions.

Important: Even if your services are not immediately impacted, we still strongly recommend you keep your root certificates in sync with the above root CA bundle.

See question Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle? for the full details.

Is there a simple tool I can use to verify our root certificates store?

You may find two command line tools and useful in your investigations. Both are available on most platforms, and offer extensive options for testing your setup.

For instructions gettingsee section Getting curl below.

Note: See section How to interpret the curl output to make sure you connect avg pc tuneup filehippo the correct root certificates store, and interpret the output correctly. Also see section Managing your trusted certificates, if you need to export or import certificates.

The commands shown below are for version 1.1.1 or later. Versions before 1.1.1 are out of support. If you are using an earlier version, upgrade or modify these commands as necessary for your version. For instructions on gettingsee section Getting OpenSSL below.

Note: See sections How to print the received server certificates in human readable form, How to convert between a PEM file and a format supported by my system, Printing certificate files using OpenSSL and OpenSSL root certificates store for further instructions on how to use OpenSSL.

You will also find further useful tools under section Where can I get the tools I need? below.

For concrete testing instructions, please see section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update.

Testing your default root certificates store

Verifying the trusted Google root CA bundle

Download the trusted Google root CA bundle, then follow these steps:

How and when will the Google root CA migration continue?

  1. First phase (migrating to GS Root R2), announced in January 2017, started in late 2017 and wrapped up in the first half of 2018.
  2. Second phase (migrating to GTS Root R1 Cross) was announced in March 2021, and will roll out over the coming months, before the expiration of GS Root R2 on December 15, 2021.

Schedules of eventual later migration phases will be announced well in advance of future certificate expirations.

However, you will be able to future proof your apps, if you keep your root certificates store in sync with the curated list of root CAs in the trusted Google root CA bundle.

Also see question Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle? for further background.

General rollout plan for each Google service

  1. The staged rollout starts in a single data center.
  2. The rollout is gradually extended to more data centers until there is global coverage.
  3. If serious issues are detected at any stage, the tests can be rolled back temporarily while the issues are addressed.
  4. Based on input from previous iterations, further Google services are included in the rollout until gradually all Google services have migrated to the new certificates.

Who will be affected, when, and where?

Increasing numbers of Google Maps Platform developers will start to receive the new certificates as new data centers are migrated over. The changes will be somewhat localized, as client requests tend to be forwarded to servers in geographically nearby data centers.

As we cannot with certainty in advance say who will be affected, when and where, we recommend all our customers already verify and future proof their services well in advance of possible Google root CA migration phases.

See section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update for additional guidance.

What to look out for

Clients that are not configured with the necessary root certificate will not be able to verify their TLS connection to the Google Maps Platform. In this situation, clients will typically issue a warning that certificate validation has failed.

Depending on their TLS configuration, clients may continue to issue a Google Maps Platform request, or they may refuse to continue with the request.

Important: In case of systematic failures, see section What to do in a production outage.

What are the minimum requirements for a TLS client to communicate with Google Maps Platform?

Google Maps Platform certificates employ DNS Subject Alternative Names (SANs), so a client's certificate handling must be able to support SANs that may include a single wildcard as the left-most label in the name, such as .

For other requirements, please refer to section What are the recommended requirements for a TLS client to communicate with Google? in the GTS FAQ.

Which kinds of applications are at risk of breaking?

The application uses the system root certificates store without any developer imposed restrictions

Google Maps Platform web service applications

If you are using a mainstream OS, e.g., Ubuntu, Red Hat, Windows 10 or Server 2019, OS X) that is still maintained and receives regular updates, your default root certificates store should already include the GTS Root R1 certificate.

If you are using a legacy OS version that no longer receives updates, you may or may not have the GTS Root R1 certificate. However, your root certificates store will most likely contain GlobalSign Root CA - R1, one of the oldest and most widely trusted root CAs.

For mobile applications calling Google Maps Platform web services directly from the end user device, guidelines from question Are mobile apps at risk of breaking? apply.

Important: Even if your application can managed with the first phase of the migration without any certificate updates, we strongly recommend future proofing your application now in one go. See question Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle? for further details.

Maps JavaScript API applications generally rely on the root certificates of the web browser running the application. See section Are JavaScript applications at risk of breaking? for more further details.

For native mobile applications using any of Maps SDK for Android, Maps SDK for iOS, Places SDK for Android or Places SDK for iOS, the same rules apply as for apps calling the Google Maps Platform web services.

See question Are mobile apps at risk of breaking? for more details.

The app uses its own certificate bundle or uses advanced security features, such as certificate pinning

You will need make sure to update your certificate bundle yourself. As discussed under question Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle?, we recommend you import all certificates from the trusted Google root CA bundle into your own root certificates store.

If you are pinning certificates or public keys for the Google domains your application connects to, you should add the certificates and public keys to the list of trusted entities in your application.

For further information about certificate or public key pinning, refer to the external resources listed under question Need more info?.

Why should I keep my root certificates store in sync with the trusted Google root CA bundle?

The curated list of root CAs in the trusted Google root CA bundle includes all CAs that may plausibly be used by Google services in the foreseeable future.

Therefore, if you wish to future proof your system, we strongly recommend that you verify that your root certificates store contains all the certificates from the bundle, and make a habit of keeping the two in sync.

This is especially important if your services run on an unmaintained operating system version, you are for other reasons unable to keep your operating system and libraries patched up, or you maintain your own root certificates store.

See question How can I get advance notification of future migrations? to find out how to get updates about future root CA migrations. Routinely keeping your root certificates store in sync with the curated list will safeguard your services against future service interruptions, due to CA changes, and will keep your services running beyond the expiration of both GTS Root R1 Cross and GlobalSign Root CA - R1.

Also, please refer to question I'm building a product that connects to Google services. What CA certificates do I need to trust? in the GTS FAQ for further recommendations.

Why should I not install any leaf or intermediate CA certificates?

Warning: You should never configure your services to explicitly trust a leaf certificate or intermediate CA!

Doing so will risk breaking your application at any point we enroll a new certificate, or switch intermediate CAs. Either of these may happen at any time and without any prior notice, and it applies equally to individual server certificates, such as those served byas well as any of our intermediate CAs, such as GTS Root R1 Cross.

To shield your services against this, you should only install root certificates from the trusted Google root CA bundle, and rely on the root certificate alone to verify the trustworthiness of the entire certificate chain anchored to it.

Any modern TLS library implementation should be able to automatically verify such chains of trust, as long as the root certificate authority is trusted.

Are JavaScript applications at risk of breaking?

The GTS root certicates are already well embedded and trusted by most modern browsers, and the cross-sign from GMO GlobalSign should ensure a smooth migration even for most end users on legacy browsers. This includes all officially supported browsers for Maps JavaScript API.

Every modern browser should allow end users to verify and usually edit which certificates the browser trusts. Although the exact location differs with each browser, the list of certificates can typically be found somewhere under Settings.

Are mobile apps at risk of breaking?

Android and Apple iOS devices still receiving regular updates from the device manufacturer are also expected to be future proof. Most older Android phone models include at least the GlobalSign Root CA - R1 certificate, although the list of trusted certificates may vary per handset manufacturer, device model and Android version.

However, support for the GTS root CAs, including GTS Root R1 may still be limited in Android versions prior to 10.

Important: As individual handset manufacturers may have chosen to include different sets of trusted root certificates, the most reliable way to verify which root certificates are available on an Android device is for the end user to debut video capture serial key crack - Crack Key For U this themselves. All Android versions starting from Android Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0) should offer the list of trusted root CAs under settings, although the actual path may vary.

For iOS devices, Apple maintains a list of trusted root CAs for each recent iOS version on its support pages. However, all iOS versions 5 and up support GlobalSign Root CA - R1.

GTS root CAs, including GTS Root R1 have been supported since iOS version 12.1.3.

See question How can I check the trusted root certificates on my mobile phone? for further details.

Important: Mobile applications using certificate or public key pinning for communicating with Google Services should be updated, as discussed in section The app uses its own certificate bundle or uses advanced security features, such as certificate pinning.

When will my browser or operating system include the Google Trust Services root certificates?

Key Point: It likely already does!

Google has over the last years worked extensively with all major third parties maintaining widely used and trusted root certificate bundles. Examples include operating system manufacturers, such as Apple and Microsoft, but also Google's own Android and ChromeOS teams; browser developers, such as Mozilla, Apple, Microsoft, but also Google's own Chrome team; manufacturers of hardware, such as phones, set-top boxes, TVs, game consoles, printers, just to name a few.

It is therefore very likely that any currently maintained system already support Google's new GTS Root CAs, including GTS Root R1, and even legacy systems are highly likely to support GlobalSign Root CA - R1, which will be used for cross-signing Google-issued certificates through the next years.

However, as third-party certificate inclusion timelines are largely beyond the control of Google, the best general advice we can offer is to make sure you regularly apply available system updates.

Select third parties, such as Mozillaʼs CA Certificate Program may have documented their own certificate inclusion timelines.

Troubleshooting

Where can I get the tools I need?

Getting curl

If your OS distribution doesn't provideyou can download it from https://curl.haxx.se/. You can either download the source and compile the tool yourself or download a pre-compiled binary, if one is available for your platform.

Getting OpenSSL

If your OS distribution doesn't provideyou can download the source from https://www.openssl.org/ and compile the tool. A list of binaries build by 3rd parties can be found via https://www.openssl.org/community/binaries.html. However, none of these builds are supported or in any specific way endorsed by the OpenSSL team.

Getting Wireshark, Tshark or Tcpdump

While most Linux distributions offerits command-line tool andpre-compiled versions of the first two for other OSs can be found at https://www.wireshark.org.

The source code for Tcpdump and LibPCAP can be found at https://www.tcpdump.org.

Documentation for these useful tools can be found in the Wireshark User's Guide, on the Tshark man page and on the Tcpdump man page, respectively.

Getting Java keytool

The command line tool should be shipped with every Java Development Kit (JDK) or Java Runtime Environment (JRE) version. Install these to get However, using snaptube for pc is unlikely necessary for root certificate verification, unless your application is built using Java.

What to do in a production outage

The primary course of action for you is to install the required root certificates from the trusted Google root CA bundle into the root certificates store your application uses.

Note: This method varies per operating system, possibly even the SSL/TLS library your application uses. Therefore, please always first refer to your system documentation! However, you may still find useful information in section Managing your trusted certificates.
  1. Work together with your system administrators to upgrade your local root certificates store.
  2. Check this FAQ for pointers applicable to your system.
  3. If you need further platform- or system-specific assistance, reach out to the technical support channels offered by your system provider.
  4. For general assistance, reach out to our support team, as described in section Reaching out to Google Maps Platform support. Note: For platform-specific issues, guidance is only provided on a best effort basis.
  5. Star public issue 186840968 for further migration related updates.

Reaching out to Google Maps Platform support

Initial troubleshooting

See section How to verify if my root certificates store needs an update for generic troubleshooting instructions.

Section Managing your trusted certificates may also provide valuable information, if you need to import or export root certificates.

If the issue is not resolved, and you decide to reach out to Google Maps Platform support, be prepared to also provide the following information:

  1. Where are your affected servers located?
  2. Which Google IP addresses is your service calling?
  3. Which API(s) are affected by this issue?
  4. When exactly did the issue start?
  5. Outputs of the following commands:

For instructions getting the required tools, see question Where can I get the tools I need?.

Filing a support case

Please follow the instructions for Creating a support case under Google Maps Platform Support and Resources.

When filing a support case, in addition to the data listed in section Initial troubleshooting, please also provide the following:

  • What are your public IP addresses?
  • What is the public IP address of your DNS server?
  • If possible, a tcpdump or Wireshark packet capture of the failed TLS negotiation against in PCAP format, using a sufficiently large snapshot-length to capture the entire packet without truncating it (e.g. using on older versions autotune pro 9 full crack ).
  • If possible, logs excerpts from your service showing the exact TLS connection failure reason, preferably with full server certificate chain information.

For instructions getting the required tools, see question Where can I get the tools I need?.

Posting on public issue 186840968

Caution: As the issue tracker is a public forum, please do not post any personally identifiable or sensitive information, such as IP addresses, email addresses, API keys or other credentials. If you need to share such information, please always file a support case, as explained in section Filing a support case, above.

When posting a comment on public issue 186840968, please include the information listed in section Initial troubleshooting.

How can I determine the public address of my DNS?

On Linux, you can run the following command:

On Windows you can use nslookup in interactive mode:

How to interpret the curl output

Running with the flags provides much useful information. Here are a few instructions for interpreting the output:

  • Lines starting with '' display output from the TLS negotiation, as well as connection termination information.
  • Lines starting with '' display the outgoing HTTP request that sends.
  • Lines starting with '' display the HTTP response it gets from the server.
  • If the protocol was HTTPS, the presence of '' or '' lines imply a successful TLS handshake.

Used TLS library and root certificate bundle

Running with the flags also prints out the used root certificates store, but the exact output may vary per system as shown here.

Output from a Red Hat Linux machine with linked against NSS may contain these lines:

Output from an Ubuntu or Debian Linux machine may contain these lines:

Output from an Ubuntu or Debian Linux machine using the Google root certificate PEM file given using the flag may contain these lines:

Caution: There are multiple widely used SSL/TLS libraries (see comparison table on the curl site), which may all be configured to use different root certificates bundles/stores. If curl has been linked against a different SSL/TLS library than your application, you might wish ensure that both point to the same root certificates store for the test results to be completely reliable.Note: If you maintain your own certificate bundle for your application or the application just uses a different store thanand you wish to verify the one used by your application, you can export the certificates from that store into a PEM file, which you can pass to using the flag. See section Managing your trusted certificates.

User agent

Outgoing requests contain the User-Agent header, which may provide useful information about and your system.

An example from a Red Hat Linux machine:

Failed TLS handshake

Lines, such as the ones in this code sample, indicate the connection was terminated mid-TLS-handshake because of an untrusted server certificate. The absence of debug output starting with or are also strong indicators of an unsuccessful connection attempt:

Successful TLS handshake

A successful TLS handshake is indicated by the presence of similar looking lines to the ones in this code sample. The cipher suite used for the encrypted connection should be listed, as should details of the accepted pdfelement for mac certificate. Furthermore, the presence of lines starting with or indicate that payload HTTP traffic is being successfully transmitted over the TLS encrypted connection:

How to print the received server certificates in human readable form

Presuming the output is PEM formatted, e.g. the output fromyou can print out the served certificate following these steps:

  • Copy the entired Base 64 encoded certificate, including header and footer:

  • Then do:

  • Then paste the contents of your copy buffer into the terminal.

  • Hit the Return key.

For example input and output, see section How to print PEM certificates in human readable form.

What do cross-signed Google certificates look like in OpenSSL?

Managing your trusted certificates

How can I check the trusted root certificates on my mobile phone?

Android trusted certificates

As mentioned under question Are mobile apps at risk of breaking?, Android has since version 4.0 allowed handset users to verify the list of trusted certificates under Settings. This table shows the exact Settings menu path:

Android versionMenu path
1.x, 2.x, 3.xN/A
4.x, 5.x, 6.x, 7.xSettings > Security > Trusted credentials
8.x, 9Settings > Security & Location > Encryption & credentials > Trusted credentials
10+Settings > Security > Advanced > Encryption & credentials > Trusted credentials

This table illustrates the likely availability of the most critical root certificates per Android version, based on manual verification using currently available Android Virtual Device (AVD) system images, falling back to the AOSP ca-certificates Git repository version history, where system images were no longer available:

Android versionGTS Root R1GlobalSign Root CA - R1GlobalSign Root R2 (valid until Dec 15, 2021)
2.3, 3.2, 4.x, 5.x, 6.x, 7.x, 8.x, 9
10+

Updating the Android system root certificates store is generally not possible without a firmware update or rooting the device. However, on most Android versions that are still in wide use, the current set of trusted root certificates is likely to provide uninterrupted service for multiple years to come, beyond the effective lifetime of most currently existing devices.

Beginning with version 7.0, Android offers application developers a secure method for adding trusted certificates which are only trusted by their application. This is done by bundling the certificates with the application and creating a custom network security configuration, as described in the Android Best Practices for Security & PrivacyNetwork Security Configuration training document.

However, as third-party application developers will not be able to influence the network security configuration of traffic originating from the Google Play Services APK, such efforts would likely only provide a partial workaround.

On older legacy devices, your only available option would be to rely on user-added CAs, either installed by a corporate group policy applied to the end user device, or by the end users themselves.

iOS Trust Store

While Apple does not directly show its default set of trusted root certificates to the handset user, the company has links to the sets of trusted root CAs for iOS versions 5 and up from the Apple Support articles:

However, any additional certificates installed on the iOS device should be visible under Settings > General > Profile. If no additional certificates are installed, the Profile menu item may not be displayed.

This table illustrates the availability of the most critical root certificates per iOS version, based on the above sources:

iOS versionGTS Root R1GlobalSign Root CA - R1GlobalSign Root R2 (valid until Dec 15, 2021)
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.0
12.1.3+

Where is my system root certificates store and how can I update it?

The location of the default root certificates store varies with operating system and used SSL/TLS library. However, on most Linux distributions, the default root certificates can be found under one of the following paths:

  • : Debian, Ubuntu, older RHEL and CentOS versions
  • and : Fedora, newer RHEL and CentOS versions
  • : OpenSUSE

Other certificate paths may include:

  • : Debian, Ubuntu
  • : RHEL, CentOS

Some of the certificates in these directories are likely symbolic links to files in other directories.

Caution: Just adding a new certificate to these paths may not be enough. To reconfigure your system to start using them, you will likely need to run a separate command, such as (Debian, Ubuntu) or (Fedora, RHEL and CentOS), which create the actual root certificate bundle that is used.Important: Your application may also have been configured to use a custom certificate store or root certificate bundle, so make sure you update the correct one!

OpenSSL root certificates store

For applications using OpenSSL, you can check the configured location of its installed components, including the default root certificates store using the following command:

The command prints outwhich corresponds to the top level directory the library and its configurations can be found under:

The root certificates store is located in the subdirectory.

Note: This directory may contain symbolic links that recursively point to other locations, e.g. to the default system root certificates store, as is shown below!

If OpenSSL relies on the default system root certificates store as in the example above, check the top-level section Where is my system root certificates store and how can I update it? to ensure the system root certificate bundle is up to date.

For instructions gettingsee section Getting OpenSSL.

Java root certificates store

Java applications might use their own root certificates store, which on Linux systems is typically located at orwhich can be managed using the Java command-line tool.

Warning: Java only imports the first certificate from a given PEM file. Therefore, you need to split up before proceeding with importing the recommended certificates. See question How do I extract individual certificates from roots.pem? for further instructions.

To import an individual certificate into your Java certificate store, issue the following command:

Just replace with the certificate file corresponding to each recommended root certificate, with a unique but meaningful certificate alias, and with the certificate database file used in your environment.

Note: You should be prompted if the certificate you attempt to import already exists in the your certificate store.

For further information, please refer to the download google earth pro+serial number Oracle and Stack Overflow articles:

Mozilla NSS root certificates store

Applications using Mozilla NSS may by default also use a system-wide certificate database typically located underor a user-specific default store under .

For updating your NSS database, use the tool.

Important: NSS requires a nickname for each imported certificate, so you need to split up to import each certificate separately. See question How do I extract individual certificates from roots.pem? for further instructions.

To import an individual certificate file into your NSS database, issue the following command:

Just replace with the certificate file corresponding to each recommended root certificate, with a meaningful certificate nickname, and with the certificate database path used in your environment.

For further information, please refer to the official NSS Tools certutil manual, as well as your operating system documentation.

Microsoft .NET root certificates store

Windows .NET developers may find at least the following Microsoft articles useful for updating their root certificates store:

Certificate file formats

What is a PEM file?

Privacy-Enhanced Mail (PEM) is a de-facto standard textual file format for storing and sending cryptographic certificates, keys, etc., formalized as a de-jure standard in RFC 7468.

While the file format itself is human readable, the Base64 encoded binary certificate data information is not. However, the PEM specification permits emitting explanatory text either before or after the text encoded certificate body, and many tools use this feature to also provide a clear-text summary of the most relevant data elements in a certificate.

Tools, such as can also be used to decode the entire certificate into human-readable form. See section How to print PEM certificates in human readable form for more info.

What is a ".crt" file?

Tools that allow exporting of certificates in PEM format commonly use the file extension ".crt" to indicate the file uses a textual encoding.

What is a DER file?

Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) is a standardized binary format for encoding certificates. Certificates in PEM files are typically Base64 encoded DER certificates.

What is a ".cer" file?

An exported file with a ".cer" suffix may contain a PEM-encoded certificate, but more typically a binary, usually DER-encoded certificate. By convention, ".cer" files generally only contain a single certificate.

My system refuses to import all certificates from roots.pem

Some systems, e.g., Javamay only import a single certificate from a PEM file, even if it contains several. See question How do I extract individual certificates from roots.pem? to see how the file can first be split up.

You can split up into its component certificates using the following simple bash script:

This should create a number of individual PEM files similar to the ones listed here:

The individual PEM files, such as can then be imported separately, or further converted into a file format your certificate store accepts.

How to convert between a PEM file and a format supported by my system

The OpenSSL toolkit command-line tool can be used to convert files between all commonly used certificate file formats. Instructions for converting from a PEM file to most commonly used certificate file formats are listed below.

For a full list of available options, check the official OpenSSL Command Line Utilities documentation.

For instructions gettingsee section Getting OpenSSL.

How do I convert a PEM file to DER format?

Using you can issue the following command to convert a file from PEM to DER:

How do I convert a PEM file to PKCS #7?

Using you can issue the following command to convert a file from PEM to PKCS #7:

How do I convert a PEM file to PKCS #12 (PFX)?

Using you can issue the following command to convert a file from PEM to PKCS #12:

You need to provide a file password when creating a PKCS #12 archive. Make sure to store the password somewhere safe, if you don't immediately import the PKCS #12 file into your system.

Listing, printing and exporting certificates from your root certificates store

How do I export a certificate from the Java Key Store as a PEM file?

Using you can issue the following command to list all certificates in your certificate store, together with the alias you can use to export each one:

Just replace with the certificate database file used in your environment. This command will also show the alias of each certificate, which you will need if you wist to export it.

To export an individual certificate in PEM format, issue the following command:

Just replace with the certificate database file used in your environment, and provide an and corresponding to the certificate you wish to export.

For further information, please refer to the Java Platform, Standard Edition Tools Reference: keytool manual.

How do I export certificates from the NSS root certificates store as a PEM file?

Using you can issue the following command to list all certificates in your certificate store, together with the nickname you can use to export each one:

Just replace with the download google earth pro+serial number database path used in your environment. This command will also show the nickname of each certificate, which you will need if you wist to export it.

To export an individual certificate in PEM format, issue the following command:

Just replace with the certificate database path used in your environment, and provide a and corresponding to the certificate you wish to export.

For further information, please refer to the official NSS Tools certutil manual, as well as your operating system documentation.

How to print PEM certificates in human readable form

In the following examples we presume you have the file with the following contents:

Printing certificate files using OpenSSL

Issuing the command

should output something similar to:

For instructions gettingsee section Getting OpenSSL.

Printing certificates using Java keytool

Issuing the following command

should output something similar to:

For instructions gettingsee section Getting Java keytool.

How do I see what certificates are installed in my root certificates store?

This varies per operating system and SSL/TLS library. However, the tools that allows importing and exporting certificates to and from the root certificates store typically also provide an option to list the installed certificates.

Also, if you have successfully exported the trusted root certificates into PEM files, or your root certificates store already contains stored PEM files, you can try opening the files in any text editor, as it is a plain text file format.

The PEM file may be properly labeled, providing human readable information of the associated certificate authority (example from the trusted Google root CA bundle):

The file may also just contain the certificate part. In such cases, the name of the file, such as may describe which CA the certificate belongs to. The certificate string between the and tokens is also guaranteed to be unique for each CA.

Note: If tools, such as and can be installed on your system see sections How to convert between a PEM file and a format supported by my system and How to print PEM certificates in human readable form above for tips on how to display your extracted system certificates in human readable form.

However, even if you lack the above tools, as each certificate in the trusted Google root CA bundle is properly labeled, you can reliably match the root CAs from the bundle aganist the ones from your root certificates store either byor by comparing PEM file certificate strings.

Web browsers may use their own root certificates store, or rely on the default one provided by the operating. However, all modern browsers should allow you to manage or at least view the set of root CAs they trust. See question Are JavaScript applications at risk of breaking? for further details.

For mobile phone specific instructions, see the separate question How can I check the trusted root certificates on my mobile phone?.

Appendix

Need more info?

Always rely primarily on your operating system documentation, the documentation of your application programming language(s), as well as the documentation from any external libraries that your application is using.

Any other source of information including this FAQ may be outdated or otherwise incorrect, and should not be taken as authoritative. However, you may still find useful information on many of the Stack Exchange Q&A communities, as well as sites such as AdamW on Linux and more and the confirm blog, among others.

Please also check out the Google Trust Services FAQ.

For further details about advanced topics, such as certificate pinning, you may find the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Certificate and Public Key Pinning article and Pinning Cheat Sheet informative. For Android specific instructions, please refer to the official Android Best Practices for Security & PrivacySecurity with HTTPS and SSL training document. For discussion about certificate vs. public key pinning on Android, you may find Matthew Dolan's blog post Android Security: SSL Pinning useful.

The Android Best Practices for Security & PrivacyNetwork Security Configuration training document and JeroenHD's blog post Android 7 Nougat and certificate authorities provide further information about managing additional trusted certificates on Android.

For a comprehensive list of root CAs trusted by AOSP, refer to the ca-certificates Git repository. For any versions based on inofficial Android forks, e.g. LineageOS, refer to the appropriate repositories provided by the OS vendor.

Источник: https://developers.google.com/maps/root-ca-faq

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Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, smadav 2019 serial key - Activators Patch none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of download google earth pro+serial number Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth 4ukey itunes backup ipad - Activators Patch.

By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

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Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely proshow producer 9 registration key only - Crack Key For U him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

Edit warring

Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community . a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

The English Wikipedia has 6,410,280 articles, 42,573,941 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a ultra virus killer review culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP download google earth pro+serial number cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia . are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users . 524 people . And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6,410,280

Cebuano 6,061,619

Swedish 2,872,837

German 2,633,512

French 2,374,985

Dutch 2,071,672

Russian 1,771,487

Spanish 1,731,929

Italian 1,726,585

Polish 1,496,935

Egyptian Arabic 1,378,106

Japanese 1,301,041

Vietnamese 1,270,100

Waray 1,265,576

Chinese 1,241,658

Arabic 1,143,507

Ukrainian 1,123,328

Portuguese 1,077,410

Persian 846,692

Catalan 689,830

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single download google earth pro+serial number on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

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Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

Discouragement in education

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Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization . his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice . and . his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians . remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

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Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles Bentley promis-e Free Download sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went Foobar2000 1.6.7 Beta 10 Crack With Serial Key Free Download 2021 providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy format factory 3.6 0 full crack - Crack Key For U censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying Navicat Premium 12.1.4 patch - Free Activators Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

Operation

Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency . We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the netflix download for smart tv feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority . (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Varnish

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia

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Roku both had issues and the GPU statistics plugin was showing 0 sessions. mkv is a Matroska container file and accepts video, audio and subtitle streams, so ffmpeg will try to select one of each type. Create and manage users and grant access to your repositories. it Xteve plugin Affordable dedicated servers, starting at /mo with SSD storage and unmetered bandwidth. With a normal IPTV provider, NextPVR would only deal with one layer of 302 redirect. June 21, 2021. Play 4K/360° video/music/DVD/IPTV, download MP4 MP3, mirror & record iDevice screen, DLNA stream media files. Stalker Portal (MAG) 6 credits/year & playlist. Netflix Codes. If you want to use a different editor, that's OK, skip ahead to the next step: Test drive. Start download google earth pro+serial number command prompt (Win+S -> cmd) and navigate to nssm. Learn how to bypass ESPN+ live blackout restrictions. Description Mainly purpose for this article is to guide you on how to setup and configure VLC player to retrieve camera RTSP streaming. More info at contact#IRCChannels. By default, the browser downloads any m3u8 and mpd files that were requested. Unfortunately Plex has decided to retire the entire plugin system. Esperamos que este mismo método funcione durante mucho tiempo ya que algunas veces suelen dejar de funcionar. Certified images also include support and guarantee compatibility with Docker Enterprise. Draw your cross section in a graphics program (like Adobe Illustrator) and save it to your desktop as a PNG file. Indent Guides for Visual Studio. The hugely popular built-in image repository, Docker Hub, allows you to find shared applications from other talented developers. 4 + DVB Viewer Media Server TV Server Libreelec 9 Beta mit TVHeadend 4. This results in XML that is easier to read for humans and more compact than native Java serialization. This is the first part of a series showing you how to setup Usenet Automation using Docker on a Synology NAS. com (Aired October 11, 2021) DomainSherpa - 10+11=21: Breaking News with Reza Sardeha of DAN. Accounts Payable Automation. Go through the initial setup, select the. Read on to know more details!. 0 Comentarios. Plex Pass and an IPTV Subscription. The IPTV Smarters Player is a fabulous video streaming player that allows end-users to stream content like Live TV, VOD, Series, and TV Catchup on iPhone, iPad, TvOS (Apple TV). FFmpeg must be installed on the server. After you download the installer package, double click on the file to begin the install process. Installing the plugin. Speed and low memory footprint are a crucial part of the design, making it suitable for large object graphs or systems with high message throughput. xTeVe: Version number UUID: Serial number of the xTeVe instance Available Streams: Available streams / All streams If the available streams are 0, the limit of 480 is exceeded and the filter must be used. Play chess in a clean interface. Aug 05, 2021 · Each plugin has separate instructions that could be by installing through WebTools or Kitana, from a downloaded. 2017-04-26: Users of Windows 10 Creators Update or newer should use prelease build 2. With a virtual tuner like xTeVe, you can disguise the IPTV playlists. Luminar 4 (Formerly Luminar Flex) Luminar 4 is one of the best Photoshop plugins for those who want impressive enhancements in minimal time. Tried vlc 4. As the title suggests, I wanted to explore some of the features of the new myservers plugin. Xteve plugin. For full details on what each version includes and how to upgrade, see About versions and upgrading. 0 Comentarios. sh Portable DLL. Click on any m3u8 or mpd link inside Chrome to play it directly in a new tab. Install docker engine in the host server. Toylerrr/ElegooNeptune2Integration. that are stored Firstly, download and install the CCloud TV from the app store or downloader app. it: Xteve Ffmpeg. How to Watch IPTV on Plex without IPTV Plugin for Plex? The fact that Plex closed its plugin service does not necessarily mean the end of Plex IPTV watching. FreeNAS also has many plugins that allow for the install of "apps". com - October 11, 2021 JT, Drew, and Chris Zuiker are joined by Reza Sardeha of DAN. Appearing on The Joe Rogan Experience, West Sylmar Drug Bust. Migration from tobben's TVHeadend docker should work fine but you may need to reconfigure xmltv. gz use tar xvzf PACKAGENAME. Joe Rogan Wife. WebEPG is a plugin provided with MediaPortal 2. Try free for 14-days. If you want to use the dev branch use the tag tellytv/telly:dev or if you need ffmpeg tellytv/telly:dev-ffmpeg. Therefore I want to download/install xTeVe on a Raspberry Pi. Netflix Codes. I see these have all been used by everyone here @ r/plex but I am wondering if anyone has tried all of these and could give a recommendation as to which works best for use on a Windows 10 PMS. Client: 25 MB: This installer includes the Vault client. xTeVe can merge multiple M3U and XMLTV files, and send it to your preferred Media Center. Best Premium Photoshop Plugins. In contrast, Emby supports only podcasts and that too only Emby premiere subscription. The perfect home for your teams' applications. Python script within a Pipenv as a windows service with NSSM. While the plugin enjoys Twitch’s official support, it still. Install docker engine in the host server. Once upon a time, installing Plex IPTV plugins was a good way to watch IPTV on Plex. Thus you don’t need an IPTV plugin for Plex any longer. Yesterday Raspberry Pi released the new Raspberry Pi TV HAT, a DVB-T2 Digital TV receiver add on for the Raspberry Pi. (I'm on a 4g sim, that can sometimes go a bit flaky). You can choose any name you desire for the new application, but. 0 Comentarios. type jar xvf in front of your file name, remembering to leave space before the start of your file name. Google Keep Chrome Extension. VLC or CVLC must be installed on the server. IPTV4K service uses a media pdf to jpg converter 2.2 free full version download - Crack Key For U app called 'Smart IPTV', this app is free to Glary Utilities Pro 5.145.0.171 Crack License key Free for a period of seven days, you will then be asked to make a one-time donation of € 5. NextPVR makes it easy to watch or record live TV, and provides great features like series recordings, web scheduling, iPhone/iPad client application, Kodi integration etc. it Xteve plugin Affordable dedicated servers, starting at /mo with SSD storage and unmetered bandwidth. 2021: Author: escursioni. xml are created faster. Now select the Page View to see all the channels provided by this app in the groups of 10. Integrated Plex Channels provide users with access to a growing number of online content providers such as YouTube, Vimeo, TEDTalks, and CNN among others. Your personal Emby Server automatically converts and streams your media on-the-fly to play on any device. VLC or CVLC must be installed on the server. With a virtual tuner like xTeVe, you can disguise the IPTV playlists as the regular TV channels that can be played by Plex. Appearing on The Joe Rogan Experience, West Sylmar Drug Bust. posted 2020-Sep-10, 10:04 am AEST ref: whrl. It has everything you'd expect from a polished Plex plugin, including high-definition video and straightforward content browsing by category. 16 Oct 2020 #3 Gracias. But IPTV on Plex does not work as well as it used to before 2019. plex最新的安卓app已经砍掉了插件的功能,网上的一些旧版本的破解无限制版本可以用插件功能,我用的版本是6. go - Line: 29. Tuner support varies depending on the platform it's installed in, but in cross the various platforms NextPVR supports a wide range of digital tuners including DVB-S/S2, DVB-T/T2, DVB-C, DMB-T, ATSC and QAM. We created a step-by-step user guide to help you set up the HAT and create a Tvheadend server for streaming Digital TV to devices on your network. dll that is found in the folder where is installed the VLC software. Because ESPN uses your IP address to determine your location, you will need access to a VPN if you want to bypass live blackouts for live streams and for some out-of-market replays. Docker Inc. Gentellela Free Bootstrap Admin Template. 3, tvHeadEnd for recording back end, Emby Clients: 3 Nvidia Shields, 3 FireTV, 3 Win10 Pro PC Clients #2 09-16-2016, 06:43 PM. Share images using Docker Hub. You can also use this to get more exhaustive list: vlc -H. Tvheadend Install. Kodi is available for multiple operating-systems and hardware platforms, featuring a 10-foot user interface for use with televisions and remote controls. But since GitHub changes our plugin's directory name every time SketchUp PRO 2018 Activation code - Free Activators deploy a release, WordPress won't be able to find our plugin. Download the installer package from the VLC download page for Windows. This is a super clean and elegant WordPress theme for every bloggers. Jellyfin - An actively maintained open source personal media server (forked from the last open-source version of Emby and actively developed since). 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Yes you will need plexpass for Live TV/DVR but you can use xteve to provide a DVR to plug into plex https://xteve. 0 Gbps stream (and occasionally thinks I'm watching a movie from my library instead of the DVR stream). The table below is a quick look. Change logos, channel numbers, etc all within the JF ecosystem. Social Plugin. The price for 1 device (until the end of your subscription) is 4. 3) Shutdown this VM. 媒体存储中心Windows电脑安装plex和xteve实现免费看IPTV电视直播,Windows电脑安装plex和xteve实现免费看IPTV电视直播Plex是一款非常好用的家庭媒体管理系统,它可以把你冷冰冰的影视文件夹变得非常漂亮,并且可以多平台无缝使用,是家. Run on Windows. 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I'm using M3U generated from Webif at the moment so it's the feed that comes from there. Having said that, let us have a quick look at Iron IPTV. xTeVe: Version number UUID: Serial number of the xTeVe instance Available Streams: Available streams / All streams If the available streams are 0, the limit of 480 is exceeded and the filter must be used. SUI - A startpage for your server and / or new tab page. Disabling plugins to fight piracy) have suggested that there could more such moves. Organizr - Access all your HomelabOS services in one easy place. It has everything you'd expect from a polished Plex plugin, including high-definition video and straightforward content browsing by category. Tvheadend Install. Play chess with the computer, friends or random opponents. That's right, all the lists of alternatives are crowd-sourced, and that's what makes the data. Control and schedule your home’s electrical devices with in-wall and plug-in timers. Future updates of the xteve-project would update your fork. Based on the fact, if you have any decision to watch IPTV through plug-ins, you can try Kodi IPTV function. Search: Xteve Plex Setup Guide. Other interfaces to clients can easily be developed as plugins as well. I have recently been researching IPTV integration with the Plex DVR (Plex Pass). Iron IPTV is an IPTV provider that boasts a stunning 3500 live TV channel list ranging from Sports, Cartoons, TV shows, and many more. Settings; FFmpeg can be selected as a buffer. VLC can be selected as a buffer. But since GitHub changes our plugin's directory name every time we deploy a release, WordPress won't be able to find our plugin. SageTV v9 Server: ASRock Z97 Extreme4, Intel i7-4790K @ 4. To live stream television through a tuner on Plex, you do require a subscription to their service to the tune of $4. NSSM - the Non-Sucking Service Manager. April 8th, 2021, FFmpeg 4. I have m3u and egp from provider. This means if you want to watch IPTV in Plex you’ll need to use an older version of the server, which isn’t recommended. Share images using Docker Hub. Esperamos que este mismo método funcione durante mucho tiempo ya que algunas veces suelen dejar de funcionar. QVR Pro is the network video recorder software for QNAP's QVR Pro video surveillance appliances. FFmpeg must be installed on the server. sh Portable DLL. The price for 1 device (until the end of your subscription) is 4. IPTV4K service uses a media controller app called 'Smart IPTV', this app is free to use for a period of seven days, you will then be asked to make a one-time donation of € 5. By default, only users who have administrative privileges (root users) can run containers. Docker Hub is a hosted repository service provided by Docker for finding and sharing container images with your team. Download macOS App. I see these have all been used by everyone here @ r/plex but I am wondering if anyone has tried all of these and could give a recommendation as to which works best for use on a Windows 10 PMS. You can choose any name you desire for the new application, but. posted 2020-Sep-10, 10:04 am AEST. This was easy enough. Neither HRtuner nor xTeVe do anything to the feed so it's not that, and Plex is direct playing the feed. Running the command. Download XMLTV for free. Jan 8, 2019 … xTeVe - IPTV (m3u) Proxy for Plex DVR I started xTeVe earlier this year because there was no IPTV app for the Apple TV that I was satisfied … Help on how to use IPTVadding M3U files etc. How to Install xTeVe? xTeVe is available for multiple platforms. { "appcount": 301, "apps": [ { "appid": "03959669b24360f78cd9d5f092ac57a80074b3ac", "name": "Concourse", "sha": "986692d42d54246a445cd11157227245e39a053d", "icon. As the title suggests, I wanted to explore some of the features of the new myservers plugin. 8 ( Changelog >>) Release date: 2021-04-21. x IPTV proxy with Guide2go, zap2XML, Crond & Perl Support. it: Xteve Ffmpeg. Aun así, siempre podemos usar aplicaciones como xTeVe o TellyTv para recortar la lista y pasarla a Plex. 2º Hotbird 13º Canales totalmente ordenados en Bouquets, de nuestros favoritos preferidos de las distintas plataformas que emiten en dichos satélites. 3, tvHeadEnd for recording back end, Emby Clients: 3 Nvidia Shields, 3 FireTV, 3 Win10 Pro PC Clients #2 09-16-2016, 06:43 PM. How to Watch IPTV on Plex without IPTV Plugin for Plex? The fact that Plex closed its plugin service does not necessarily mean the end of Plex IPTV watching. 自从得知可以使用Github Actions 云编译OpenWrt固件后,喜出望外,再也不需要在本. Therefore I want to download/install xTeVe on redshift render student Raspberry Pi. Just search for "xteve" and pick the one named "bl0m1/xtevedocker". I bought an Nvidia Shield (2017 model) on sale for $140 at the end of 2018 and am amazed by how much this tiny device can accomplish. With a virtual tuner like xTeVe, you can disguise the IPTV playlists as the regular TV channels that can be played by Plex. Based on the fact, if you have any decision to watch IPTV through plug-ins, you can try Kodi IPTV function. Open a console. Migration from tobben's TVHeadend docker should work fine but you may need to reconfigure xmltv. Aun así, siempre podemos usar aplicaciones como xTeVe o TellyTv para recortar la lista y pasarla a Plex. 自从得知可以使用Github Actions 云编译OpenWrt固件后,喜出望外,再也不需要在本. Jan 8, 2019 … xTeVe - IPTV (m3u) Proxy for Plex DVR I started xTeVe earlier this year because there was no IPTV app for the Apple TV that I was satisfied … Help on how to use IPTVadding M3U files etc. posted 2020-Sep-10, 10:04 am AEST. Get The IPTV Bundle for Plex This is a simple Plex Media Server plugin for your Plex PC that will read live m3u stream files. For example to be able to see what jails are currently installed, you will have to have SSH enabled if you're a command line geek, you can. This blog is to provide you with daily outfit ideas and share my personal style. Patreon is empowering a new generation of creators. 265 decoding delivers the ultra-high definition resolution. See full list on smarthomebeginner. When creating a fork, the xTeVe GitHub account must be changed from the source code or the update function disabled. Web interface EPG source: PMS. This results in XML that is easier to read for humans and more compact than native Java serialization. Hot Network Questions The meaning of "company" in "Pooh and company". We store information about your visit in so-called cookies. My question is, when buffer is not Feb 27, 2021 — I run Xteve in a windows VM and vpn app connected, then I setup my plex docker on the same unraid server. The following guide was last edited 6/14/2017 using Synology DSM 6. ext4 I build is identical to e2fsck I build; I suspect that means. Views: 42695: Published: 14. Docker Hub is the world's largestlibrary and community for container images. Social Plugin. So, now, repeating tests to compare m3u vs HDHR and the various cache modes. My personal recommendation is for xTeVe just for the ease of installation and the quality of the UI. type jar xvf in front of your file name, remembering to leave space before the start of your file name. one year subscription : New Mag 424-W13 box For $125. Bringing all of your home videos, music, and photos together into one place has never been easier. This was easy enough. Best Premium Photoshop Plugins. Your personal Emby Server automatically converts and streams your media on-the-fly to play on any device. de/ User #299317 276 posts. Neither HRtuner nor xTeVe do anything to the feed so it's not that, and Plex is direct playing the feed. 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