Excerpts from the Reviews of the book on Digital Photoelasticity(Pattern I)
The author has produced a first class text book that should find widespread use among students, researchers, and design engineers in many branches of engineering….
Applied Mechanics Reviews 55(4) B69-B71 JUL 2002
The book is accompanied by a CD-ROM of the C source code of the programs referred to in the text along with some photoelasticity simulations and some hardware-specific code. The text is supported by ample end-of-chapter tutorial questions….
Strain 38 85-86 2002
Bible of digital photoelasticity., 17 February, 2001
Not only beginners and students but also researchers, engineers and inspectors should read this book as a bible of photoelasticity.
….This is the first monograph in its field and forms a useful contribution…
Meas. Sci. Technol. 11 (December 2000) 1826-1827
------- Notice This document has been reviewed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's peer and administrative review policies and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
------- Contents Chapter Page 1. Introduction , , . 1 1.1 General 1 1.2 Purpose and Objectives 2 1.3 Scope 2 Wise Care 365 Free 5.8.3 Build 577 Crack Plus Latest Version Full Free 1.4 How to Use This Manual 3 1.5 References 3 2. Need for Disinfection Technologies 5 2.1 Need for Disinfection 5 2.2 Disinfection Criteria 7 2.3 Projected Applications of Disinfection Technologies 8 2.4 References 9 3. Disinfection Alternatives and Options 11 3.1 General Considerations 11 3.2 Selecting a Disinfection Alternative 11 3.3 Chlorination 13 3.4 Chlorine Dioxide 17 3.5 Bromine Chloride ,17 3.6 Ozone 18 3.7 Ultraviolet Light 18 3.8 References 19 4. Kinetics and Hydraulic Considerations 21 4.1 Disinfection Kinetics 21 4.2 Mixing and Contactor Hydraulics 23 4.3 References 28 5. Halogen Disinfection 31 5.1 Coverage 31 5.2 History of Halogen Disinfection 31 5.3 Chemistry and Physical Characteristics of Disinfectants 34 5.4 Analysis of Disinfectant Residuals 50 5.5 Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation 52 5.6 Process Options 55 Maltego 126.96.36.19909 Crack + License Key 2021 Free Download Design Coordination 57 5.8 Safety and Occupational Health Considerations 80 5.9 Operation and Maintenance Considerations 82 5.10 Case Studies 84 5.11 References 88
------- Contents (Cont'd) Chapter Page 6. Ozone Disinfection 97 6.1 Introduction 97 6.2 Ozone Properties, Chemistry and Terminology 97 6.3 Process Flow Schematics 107 6.4 Ozone Equipment Design Considerations 114 6.5 Ozone Disinfection Process Design Considerations 139 6.6 Safety 151 6.7 References 153 7. Ultraviolet Radiation 157 7.1 Introduction 157 7.2 Disinfection of Wastewaters by Ultraviolet Radiation 164 7.3 Process Design of UV Wastewater Disinfection System 184 7.4 UV Disinfection System Design Example 216 7.5 System Design and Operational and Maintenance Considerations for the UV Process 223 7.6 References ± 245 IV
) electrolytic hypochlorite cell 58 5-9 Chlorine expansion chambers 60 5-10 Chlorine manifold and switchover system 61 5-11 Schematic of fixed and variable orifice ejectors 62 5-12 Ejector sizing curve 63 5-13 Frictional losses in solution piping 64 5-14 Ejector sizing curve 65 5-15 Headless thru spray nozzle diffusers 66
------- List of Figures (Cont'd) Number Page 5-16 Nomograph for design of multiple perforated diffusers 67 5-17 Details of a submerged weir mixing structure 69 5-18 Details of a hydraulic jump mixing structure 69 5-19 Scale diagram of jump as designed 71 5-20 Residence time distribution functions for contact basins 72 5-21 Types of baffled contact chambers 73 5-22 Vaned serpentine contactor design 73 5-23 Dissipation of chlorine residual and point of sampling for control.
------- Figures (continued) Number Page 6-15a Schematic diagram of a typical power supply to an ozone generator 115 6-15b Schematic diagram of an ozone producing cell, a "Dialectric" 115 6-16 A free flow of electrons in the discharge gap causes various reactions with the oxygen molecule 115 6-17 Ozone formation occurs when the voltage level is sufficient to create a free flow of electrons within the discharge gap 116 6-18 Schematic Wise Care 365 Free 5.8.3 Build 577 Crack Plus Latest Version Full Free of three power supply systems typically Wise Care 365 Free 5.8.3 Build 577 Crack Plus Latest Version Full Free used for ozone generation 117 6-19 Typical ways for varying voltage and frequency to an ozone generator 117 6-20 Specific energy consumption versus ozone concentration for an air fed ozone generator 120 6-21 Example ozone generator mapping curve using air feed-gas . 135 vii
------- Figures (continued) Number Page 6-36 Schematic of a turbine mixer ozone contactor 137 6-37 Example diagram of a thermal destruct unit with a heat exchanger 138 6-38 Specific energy consumption versus off-gas temperature rise through the thermal destruct unit 138 6-39 Example diagram of a thermal/catalyst ozone destruct unit 139 6-40 Dose response curve for nitrified effluent at Marlborough .142 6-41 Example curve showing the effect of different X-axis intercepts on transferred ozone dosage requirement 143 6-42 Example curve showing the effect of different slopes on transferred ozone dosage requirement 143 6-43 Specific energy consumption for a typical air-fed ozone generation system , 145 6-44 Design example projected ozone production rate for various operating conditions .149 6-45 Human tolerance for ozone 152 7-1 General description of UV design 158 7-2 Example of closed vessel UV reactor with flow parallel to lamps. 160 7-3 Schematic of quartz UV unit in Vinton, IA 161 7-4 Schematic of quartz UV unit in Suffern, NY 161 7-5 Example of open channel unit at Pella, Iowa with flow directed perpendicular to lamps 162 7-6 Schematic of quartz UV unit in Albert Lea, MN , 162 7-7 Schematic of open channel, modular UV system 163 7-8 Example of UV system Teflon tubes 163 7-9 Electromagnetic spectrum 174 7-10 Relative germicidal effectiveness as a function of wavelength . 174 7-11 Relative abiotic effect of UV on E. coli, compared to relative absorption of ribose nucleic acid 175 7-12 Example of DNA and UV damage to DNA 175 7-13 Schematic representation of the effects of photoreactivation 176 7-14 Effect of particulates on UV disinfection efficiency 185 7-15 The rate K increases with increasing intensity for a given residence time 186 viii
------- Figures (continued) Number Page 7-16 Example of RTD curve developed for unit 2 at Port Richmond by the step input method 189 7-17 Relationships of velocity, length, and dispersion 190 7-18 Log-log plot of head loss against velocity for unit 2 at Port Richmond indicating transition from laminar to turbulent flow regime 191 7-19 Estimates of Reynold's number for 8.210 ix
------- Figures (continued) Number Page 7-36 An example of the comparison of disinfection model estimates to observed effluent fecal coliform densities 210 7-37 Correlation to estimate the spherical absorbance coefficient from direct unfiltered absorbance coefficient 214 7-38 Comparison of inactivation rate estimates from several wastewater treatment plants 214 7-39 Estimation of Np from several plants 215 7-40 Photoreactivation effects for total and fecal coliform at Port Richmond 216 7-41 Example of calculating the limiting U and X on the basis of head loss ; '.- 220 7-42 Predicted performance as a function of loading for design example 221 7-43 Effect of bulb wall temperature on the UV output of a low pressure mercury arc lamp 225 7-44 Nominal lamp output as a function of arc length 226 7-45 Measurement and analysis technique for estimating the total UV output of a lamp 226 7-46 Sketch of lamp monitoring setup 227 7-47 Energy sinks in UV reactor 228 7-48 Approximation of average lamp UV output at 253.7 nm with time for quartz systems, accounting for lamp aging and surface fouling 230 7-49 Estimate of Teflon transmittance by use of a UV detector 231 7-50 Test setup to conduct actinometry experiments 231 7-51 Example of chemical actinometry tests to determine Teflon UV transmission 232 7-52 Effect of wall thickness as determined by chemical actinometry 232 7-53 Example of radiometer intensity readings as a function of UV absorbance at Port Richmond , 234 7-54 Schematic of in-place chemical cleaning system at Suffern, NY . 236 7-55 Comparison of ultrasonic cleaning performance at Suffern, NY . 238 7-56 Estimate of labor requirements for the operation and maintenance of UV systems 244
------- List of Tables i '. Number Page 2-1 Typical Composition of Domestic Wastewaters 6 2-2 Typical Influent Concentration Ranges for Pathogenic and Indicator Organisms 6 2-3 Microorganism Reductions by Conventional Treatment Processes 6 2-4 Secondary Effluent Ranges for Pathogenic and Indicator Organisms Prior to Disinfection 7 2-5 Number of Wastewater Treatment Plants by Flow Capacity . r 5-9 Summary of Kinetics of HOCI" and OCI" Reduction by Miscellaneous Reducing Agents 46 5-10 Physical Properties of Sulfur Dioxide 48 avira antivirus pro 2018 crack free download - Free Activators xi
------- List of Tables (continued) Number Page 5-11 Wise Care 365 Free 5.8.3 Build 577 Crack Plus Latest Version Full Free Parameters for Microbial Inactivation by Chlorine . 53 5-12 Parameters in the Collins et al. Model Describing Wastewater Coliform Inactivation by Chlorine 55 5-13 Computation of Length to Jump (Lj) 70 5-14 Physical Dimensions of Chlorine Gas Containers 80 5-15 Gas Phase Chlorine Concentrations Evoking Specific Effects 81 5-16 Neutralization Requirements for Chlorine Containers 82 5-17 Troubleshooting Guide 85 5-18 O&M Schedule, Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Planl: 88 6-1 U.S. Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Using Ozone . 98 6-2 Properties of Pure Ozone 99 6-3 Solubility of Ozone in Water 100 6-4 Terminology for Measured Ozone Parameters 104 6-5 English Unit Equivalents for Ozone Concentration 105 6-6 Terminology for Calculated Ozone Parameters 105 6-7 Moisture Content of Air for Air Temperatures from -80° to 40°C 106 6-8 Atmospheric Pressure at Different Altitudes 106 6-9 Effect of Short-Circuiting on Disinfection Peformance 134 6-10 Reported Design Applied Ozone Dosages for Various Wastewater Treatment Plants 141 6-11 Reported Operating Applied Ozone Dosages for Various Wastewater Treatment Plants 141 6-12 Summary of Dose/Response Curve Slopes and Intercepts for Various Ozone Disinfection Research Studies 142 6-13 Ozone Disinfection System Criteria for Design Example Problem . 147 6-14 Transferred Ozone Dosage Calculations for Design Example 149 7-1 Municipalities That Have Received I/A Funds for Designing and/or Constructing UV Disinfection Facilities 164 7-2 Summary List of Facilities in the U.S. or Canada Utilizing UV Disinfection Which are in Design 165 7-3 Summary List of Facilities in the U.S. or Canada Utilizing UV Disinfection Which are Under Construction 168 7-4 Summary List of Facilities in the U.S. or Canada Utilizing UV Disinfection Which are in Operation 170 7-5 Summary of UV Installations in U.S. in Operation, Construct, or Design Phase 173 xii
------- Tables (continued) Number Page 7-6 Summary of Reynolds Number Estimates for Different Lamp Configurations 193 7-7 Driver booster 6.5 key - Activators Patch of Low Pressure Mercury Arc Lamp Specifications 196 7-8 Wastewater Treatment Plants Which are Sources of Wastewater Characterization Data 212 7-9 Initial Bacterial Density Before Disinfection 213 7-10 Treated Effluent Characteristics from Several Wastewater Treatment Plants 213 7-11 Example UV Disinfection System Design Criteria 217 7-12 Estimate of Intensity and Rate K for Design Example 220 7-13 Calculations of Performance on the Basis of Loading for the Design Example . 222 7-14 Estimation of Reactor Performance Requirements for the Design Example 222 7-15 Sizing Calculation for the Design Example 222 7-16 Reactor Sizing Requirement for the Design Example 223 7-17 Effects of Fouling on the UV Transmittance of Quartz 231 7-18 UV Transmittances of New and Used Teflon as Determined by Chemical Actinornetry , 232 XIII
------- Acknowledgments Many individuals contributed to the preparation and review of this manual. Contract administration was provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Water Engineering Research Laboratory (WERL), Cincinnati, Ohio. Authors: Enos L. Stover, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma Charles N. Haas, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois Kerwin L. Rakness, Process Applications, Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado 0. Karl Sensible, HydroQual, Inc., Mahwah, New Jersey Project Officer: Albert D. Venosa, EPAWERL, Cincinnati, Ohio Technical Peer Reviewers: Karl E. Longley, California State UniversityFresno, Fresno, California Louis A. Ravina, Riddick Associates, P.C., Tappan, New York C. Michael Robson, Camp, Dresser and McKee, Louisville, Kentucky R. Rhodes Trussell, James M. Montgomery Engineers, Pasadena, California Other Reviewers: Edward J. Opatken, EPAHWERL, Cincinnati, Ohio Denis J. Lussier, EPACERI, Cincinnati, Ohio Orville Macomber, EPACERI, Cincinnati, Ohio James F. Wheeler, EPAOMPC, Washington, DC John Maxted, EPAOMPC, Wise Care 365 Free 5.8.3 Build 577 Crack Plus Latest Version Full Free Washington, DC Alan B. Hais, EPAOMPC, Wise Care 365 Free 5.8.3 Build 577 Crack Plus Latest Version Full Free May 11, 2021 - Free Activators, DC Dennis R. Ohlmansiek, Emery Chemicals, Inc., Cincinnati, OH George C. White, San Francisco, California XV
------- Sidney Ellner, Ultraviolet Purification Systems, Inc., Bedford Hills, New York G. Elliott Whitby, Trojan Technologies, Inc., London, Ontario, Canada L. Joseph Bollyky, International Ozone Association, Norwalk, Connecticut Ronald L. Laroque, Hanken Environmental Systems, Inc., Scarborough, Ontario, Canada Carl W. Nebel, PCI Ozone Corporation, West Caldwell, New Jersey Frederick C. Novak, Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts Other Contributors: Enos L. Stover gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Brent W. Cowan for project engineering assistance. Charles N. Haas gratefully acknowledges the assistance of two of his students in compiling and editing portions of the chapter on halogenation and dehalogenation, Sandaram B. Karra and Kirankumar V. Topudurti. Kerwin Rakness gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Bob A. Hegg of Process Applications, Inc., in data develop- ment and document review, and the assistance of Robert C. Renner of Process Applications, Inc., in document review. O. Karl Scheible gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Maureen Casey, Wilfred Dunne, and William Leo in the development and analysis of data. XVI
------- Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 General Chlorination has long been the accepted and pre- ferred method of disinfection for both water and wastewater in the United States. Major factors in the implementation of chlorination were efficiency and low cost when compared to other means of disinfec- tion. New considerations that are now being exam- ined very closely are the environmental and biota impacts of chlorination versus attainment of public health. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recognized the adverse effects of chlorination of wastewaters and reported the following conclusions in its Task Force Report (1): disinfection requirements (i.e., the need) should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis with considera- tion of beneficial uses and criteria. chlorine and subsequent residuals are extremely toxic to aquatic wildlife. chlorine and organic compounds form chloro- organics and are potentially toxic to man. In effect, the policy and summary conclusions have Wise Care 365 Free 5.8.3 Build 577 Crack Plus Latest Version Full Free not changed since 1976. The agency policy essen- tially states: disinfection should not be required in those instances where significant benefits are not dem- onstrated. prospective disinfection benefits must be weighed against the environmental risks and costs. chlorine should be considered only when there are public health hazards to control. alternative disinfection methods and/or dechlor- ination must be considered when and where public and aquatic health and/or life impacts co-exist. With the enactment of the Clean Water Act, its amendments and new assertions on site specific criteria, there is no longer a "generic" disinfection procedure. The realization that chlorine is toxic to aquatic life and reacts with precursors of trihalo- methanes (THMs) and other chlorine oxidizable and substitutable compounds in wastewater effluents has caused considerable concern. As a result, the existing practices of disinfection have fallen under close scrutiny. Disinfection studies, chemical char- acterizations, and other evaluations are ongoing even nowto assess more accurately the impact of present- day disinfection practices. That a specific disinfection process has been reported as troublesome at a particular facility could very well be the result of many factors, some or all of which may not have been considered prior to engineering and installation. Critical factors such as disinfection type, tank configuration, contact time, conditioning and pre-conditioning criteria, power costs, mainte- nance requirements, and others may not have been fully understood or evaluated. Recent information released by the EPA and the General Accounting Office(GAO) has indicated that many of the municipal wastewater treatment plants in the United States have not been meeting their effluent discharge limitations (2). An estimated 18,000 municipal waste- water treatment plants were in operation or under construction by the end of 1979. More than half of these plants were not functioning as designed with respect to BOD, TSS, and fecal coliform removal. Reasons for plant problems were site-specific and complicated with long-term violations determined to be due to a combination of problems, as follows: operation and maintenance (O&M) deficiencies. equipment problems. infiltration and inflow. industrial waste overloads. design deficiencies. With respect to design deficiencies, four basic types of design problems that have been implicated include the following: limited state-of-the-art during the design phase. lack of expertise. sampling errors prior to plant design. time and funding constraints. All these problems have been responsible for design deficiencies associated with wastewater disinfection facilities. Limited state-of-the-art during the design phase has been a real problem associated with the design of alternative disinfection processes, such as ozone and ultraviolet light. With the increasing need for wastewater treatment plant upgrading modifica- tions, including more stringent disinfection criteria.
------- elimination of design deficiencies and expanding the state-of-the-art for process design become very important considerations. The importance and need for a comprehensive design document for municipal wastewater disinfection is apparent. A single source information document does not exist today that will assist and direct the design engineer, and other concerned parties, in an educated and informed decision, selection, and design proce- dure for the best disinfection alternative process suited to site specific constraints. A major tool that is lacking in the area of disinfection is a concise and unbiased design manual dealing with the disinfection alternatives, and the design of the most effective alternative for the application desired. The purpose of this manual is to bridge this gap and present the engineer with comprehensive design guidance for the implementation of the most efficient and cost effective disinfection method needed for a particular site. 1.2 Purpose and Objectives Over the past 14 years the EPA has actively pursued an extensive program to investigate alternatives to chlorination of wastewaters through internal and externally funded research and development. This research has produced a wealth of information on disinfection alternatives from literature surveys, laboratory studies, pilot plant studies, and full-scale investigations. The EPA contractors, grantees, and project officers involved in this extensive effort have developed results and experience in design and operation of the most applicable disinfection alternatives. The EPA disinfection program has advanced to the point where the wealth of information and expertise developed on disinfection alternatives can be compiled into a single document for evaluation of process alternatives and design of the selected disinfection process. The primary objective of this document is to provide a comprehensive process design manual for waste- water disinfection to be used by design engineers, regulatory and review agencies, and owners and operators of disinfection processes. The development of this document has been based on both the theoretical and practical application of process design criteria for the implementation of disinfection tech- nology in municipal treatment facilities. The informa- tion in this process design manual for disinfection has been developed from the following sources: Literature Extensive experience of the individuals preparing the manual from participation in disinfection research and development. Active involvement and participation by the EPA project officers involved in the disinfection pro- gram. Information and results developed from the EPA internal efforts and externally funded research programs. Communications with investigators and equipment manufacturers. Plant site visits and discussions with operating personnel. The disinfection alternatives that are the subject of this manual and of which sufficient information exists for design purposes are halogenation/dehalo- genation (including chlorine, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide), ozonation, and ultraviolet irradia- tion. In the future the acceptable risks associated with the various disinfection alternatives and the levels of disinfection required may be refined and thus create disinfection criteria other than those in present use. The design approaches presented in this manual are flexible and applicable to the various levels of disinfection presently required as well as those that may be required in the future by covering the range of no detectable coliforms up to any desired level in wastewater effluents. 1.3 Scope The first part of this manual presents an overview of the disinfection process, the types of disinfecting agents, and the advantages and disadvantages of each.The manual then discusses in separate chapters how to design each of the primary disinfection alternatives. Although many more alternative dis- infection methods have been identified, only those considered in this manual are cost effective and presently being implemented. The following criteria were used to select the disinfection processes discussed: technical feasibility, flexibility, reliability, complexity, safety, costs, environmental impacts, and hazardous material impact or formation. The primary thrust of this manual is Wise Care 365 Free 5.8.3 Build 577 Crack Plus Latest Version Full Free present thorough design guidelines on ozone, ultraviolet light, chlorination, and chlorination/dechlorination facilities. Bromine chloride and chlorine dioxide are discussed in the manual but not to the level of detail as the previous alternatives. Bromine chloride ap- pears to be as flexible and effective as chlorine; however, some questions still remain regarding the use of bromine chloride, such as equipment reliability and future chemical cost. Full-scale operating data and a proven track record for bromine chloride disinfection are still lacking. Chlorine dioxide is a proven bactericide and virucide and has certain features making it attractive for drinking water treatment. However, for wastewater disinfection, chlorine dioxide is not so attractive, principally because of its high cost. Also, its persisting residual is toxic and may require removal through chemical reduction prior to discharge of the disinfected ef- fluent.
------- Each of the respective chapters presents a brief historical background of the development and use of the particular 'disinfectant of interest. The chapters then review process chemistry and disinfection kinetics. Analytical measurement methodology is discussed relative to both wet chemistry and instru- mentation analysis, including disinfection process control concepts. Then the actual process design factors, considerations, and experience are presented along with case histories, operation and mainte- nance, and safety considerations. 1.4 How to Use this Manual After discussing the need for wastewater disinfec- tion, along with disinfection criteria in Chapter 2, the manual in Chapter 3 discusses the disinfection alternatives and options considered feasible for municipal wastewater disinfection. A qualitative screening procedure is presented in Chapter 3 for evaluating and selecting an appropriate disinfection technology for a specific application. Examples are presented where each of the primary disinfection technologies is selected. In Chapter 3, the predom- inant advantages and disadvantages of each of these disinfection alternatives are also discussed. After a disinfection alternative has been selected for a specific application, the manual user can proceed directly to the appropriate chapter on design of that technology. Halogen disinfection is discussed in Chapter 5, ozone disinfection is discussed in Chapter 6, and UV disinfection is discussed in Chapter 7. However, before the user proceeds to the appropriate design chapter, he may want to review Chapter 4 on disinfection kinetics and hydraulic considerations. Chapter 4 presents a general overview of kinetic considerations, mixing requirements, and contacting requirements that apply to each of the disinfection alternatives. The suggested sequence to follow for use of this disinfection design manual is presented in Figure 1.1. After the appropriate disinfection technology has been selected for design, the user can proceed through the specific design chapter indicated in Figure 1.1. Each design chapter includes a brief history, overview, and application discussion of the respective disinfection technology. More detail on the fundamental chemical and kinetic aspects of each disinfectant is presented, compared to the general overall discussion in Chapter 4. Specific aspects of mixing and contactor hydraulic considerations are also presented as they relate to the specific disinfec- tion technology under discussion. Following this, each chapter presents an in depth discussion of equipment design considerations, including materials of construction, similarities and differences among available equipment suppliers, and factors to be aware of in specifying equipment. Process design Figure 1 -1. Sequence of Manual's use. Need for Disinfection Technologies (Chapter 2) ' Disinfection Alternatives and Options (Chapter 3) Kinetics and Hydraulic Considerations (Chapter 4) procedures are then presented, detailing the mechan- ics of how to size and specify equipment based on dose requirements, disinfectant demand, NPDES permit limitations, and cost minimization. The latter section of each chapter is the heart of the manual, but the previous sections provide essential technical back-up for making the proper design decisions. 1.5 References 1. Disinfection of Wastewater Task Force Report. EPA-430/9-75-012, U.S. Environmental Pro- pilot edit license - Activators Patch tection Agency, Washington, DC, 1976. 2. Morrison, A. GAO Finds Massive Failure of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Civil Engineer- ing ^(W? 4, 1981.
------- Chapter 2 Need for Disinfection Technologies 2.1 Need for Disinfection Population increases and much greater demands for water supply and water recreational uses within the past 15 to 20 years have significantly increased the opportunity for human exposure to wastewaters being discharged into the environment. Natural safeguards, such as dilution and distance or time before contact or use, have been reduced due to the large volumes of wastewater being discharged and the number of discharge locations. Domestic waste- waters carry human pathogens excreted in the fecal discharges of infected individuals. Even treated effluents can affect sources of domestic water supply, recreational waters, and shellfish growing areas. Disinfection is necessary to reduce transmission of infectious diseases when human contact is probable. Chlorine in the past has been used almost universally as the disinfectant for wastewaters. However, studies have shown that chlorine and its by-products can be toxic to aquatic life, repel and deny spawning grounds to anadromous fish, and decimate fish larvae and other forms of life. Out of these concerns, questions have arisen relative to both disinfection needs in general and disinfection with chlorine. Although the need for disinfection is site specific, in general, disinfection is considered to be a beneficial unit process and required for most discharge applications. The organisms of greatest concern in human expo- sure to wastewater-contaminated environments are the enteric bacteria and viruses and the intestinal parasites. Diseases that are spread via water con- sumption and/or contact can be severe and some- times crippling. Bacterial diseases such as salmo- nellosis (including typhoid and paratyphoid fevers), cholera, gastroenteritis from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) and viral diseases caused by infectious hepatitis virus, poliovirus, coxsackieviruses A and B, echoviruses, reoviruses, and adenoviruses may be contracted by contact with or by consumption of wastewater contaminated water supplies (i.e., potable and/or recreational). The alternative of discharging wastewater that has not been disinfected allows discharging of pathogenic organisms and other resultant hazards posed to humans. Pathogenic organisms, by definition, cause disease in human beings. Waterborne transmission of these disease-causing organisms can occur via four pathways(1): direct ingestion of untreated water. direct ingestion of treated drinking water. ingestion of aquatic food species infected with pathogens absorbed from contaminated waters. invasion resulting from skin contact with contam- inated water. The first three pathways are sometimes classified as the fecal-oral route. The second pathway described above occurs when a drinking water treatment system fails or the integrity of the water distribution system is violated. The fourth pathway is likely to result in skin, mucous membrane, or urinary tract infections but is seldom implicated in gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The risk of disease by exposure to wastewater effluent in recreational water, especially non-disinfected effluent, is not well established on epidemiological grounds; however, recent work has demonstrated a cause-effect rela- tionship via this pathway (2). Wastewater treatment plants historically discharge their effluents to natural receiving streams that are often tributaries of larger recreational bodies of water or that are used as water supply sources by down- stream communities. City potable water supplies are often extracted from these tributaries or lakes, physically and chemically treated and distributed to customers. The only protection that the recreational users receive is the hope that the wastewater was adequately disinfected prior to discharge. So long as disinfection guidelines and standards are being met at the sources, public safety and water quality will be protected. Factors that influence and potentially bias this type of rational thinking are equipment design, operator training, equipment dependability, operator attention, and others. It is significant that infectious hepatitis has main- tained a level of 50,000 to 60,000 cases per year in the United States (3), while typhoid fever dropped from 2000 cases in 1955 to300 in 1968 (4). There are more than 100 viruses excreted in human feces that have been reportedly found in contaminated water, of which any one could cause a waterborne disease.
------- A wide variety of enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and parasites is known to occur in all community-derived wastewaters. Infective dose studies with a variety of enteric organisms have beenconducted overthe past 30 yearsin human volunteers (5). The widest dose range required to produce a response was found with the bacterial agents. Salmonella spp. required the largest dose with the ingestion of 105 to 108 cells needed to produce a 50 percent illness rate. In contrast, three species of Shigella produced illness in a significant percent of subjects dosed with 10 to 100 cells. Protozoan infections have been produced with Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia dosed in gelatin capsules at the level of 1 to 10 cysts. Enteric viruses have produced infection at low dosage levels via oral ingestion, inhalation, and conjunctiva! exposure. These studies have clearly shown that specific enteric organisms of all three classifications, i.e., bacteria, viruses, and animal parasites, can produce infections at relatively low exposure levels. Available data are insufficient to evaluate the actual health hazards that exist for individuals exposed to wastewater subjected to various degrees of treatment and dilution; however, the data indicate thai: enteric pathogens can cause, infections at exposure levels found in undisinfected wastewater. Sobsey reported the viral content of wastewater (United States origin) ranged from 2 to 3 tp more than 1000 infectious unite/100 ml sample (6). Peak periods were observed to occur in late summer and early fall. Most enteric virus concentrations have been isolated in heavily polluted surface waters, but Berg and coworkers were able to detect enteric viruses in the Missouri River having fecal coliform concentrations as low as 60/100 ml (3). Although very little quantitative information is available with respect to the concentration levels of enteric viruses in the United States surface and groundwaters, much evidence leads to the indication that wastewaters are a primary source. It is difficult to accurately identify general FinePrint Keygen wastewater characteristics due to differences in locations, water uses, seasonal variations, diurnal variations, etc. However, it is important that the design engineer have a knowledge of the wastewater characteristics for which he is designing a disinfec- tion system. He must have a knowledge of the composition of the conventional parameters as well as the concentrations of the pathogenic agents or indicator organisms for which he is designing the disinfection system. The influent pathogen or indi- cator organism concentration is a critical parameter for design of any of the disinfection technologies. Typical compositions of raw wastewater through various levels of treatment are summarized in Table 2-1. The total or fecal coliform (indicator organism) level is a critical design parameter that should be determined on a site specific basis where possible. The total bacterial population of human feces has been estimated to reach a density of 101? organisms per gram (3). The density range of fecal coliforms in human feces has been estimated at 106 to 109 per gram with total coliforms estimated at 107to 109per gram. Hubley et al. (1) presented an assessment of the concentration ranges of certain organisms in domestic wastewater, reduction through primary and secondary treatment, and estimated secondary treated effluent concentrations, as summarized in Tables 2-2, 2-3, and 2-4. If one assumes that the pathogenic organisms are removed in proportion to Table 2-2. Typical Influent Concentration Ranges for Pathogenic and Indicator Organisms (7) Nurnber/100 ml Organism Minimum Maximum Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms Fecal Streptococci Virus 1,000,000 340,000 64,000 0.6 49,000,000 4,500,000 10,000 Table 2-3. Microorganism Reductions by Conventional Treatment Processes (8)(9) Microorganisms Total coliforms Fecal coliforms Shigella sp. Salmonella sp. Escherichia coli Virus Entamoeba histolytica Primary Treatment Removal (%)
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