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l TJ?aS, THERE HAS BEEN PRESENTED TO THE Commissioner of Patents ana T raaemarka t A PETITION PRAYING FOR THE GRANT OF LETTERS PATENT FOR AN ALLEGED NEW AND USEFUL INVENTION THE TITLE AND DESCRIPTION OF WHICH ARE CON- TAINED IN THE SPECIFICATION OF WHICH A COPY IS HEREUNTO ANNEXED AND MADE A PART HEREOF. AND THE VARIOUS REQUIREMENTS OF LAW IN SUCH CASES MADE AND PROVIDED HAVE BEEN COMPLIED WITH. AND THE TITLE THERETO IS. FROM THE RECORDS OF THE PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE IN THE CLAIMANT(S) INDICATED IN THE SAID COPY. AND WHEREAS, UPON DUE EXAMI- NATION MADE, THE SAID CLAIMANT(s) IS (ARE) ADJUDGED TO BE ENTITLED TO A PATENT UNDER THE LAW. NOW, THEREFORE. THESE Letters Patent ARE TO GRANT UNTO THE SAID CLAIMANT(S) AND THE SUCCESSORS. HEIRSOR ASSIGNS OFTHE SAID CLAIMANT(S) FOR THE TERM OF SEVENTEEN YEARS FROM THE DATE OF THIS GRANT. SUBJECT THE PAYMENT OF ISSUE FEES AS PROVIDED BY LAW, THE RIGHT TO EXCLUDE iERS FROM MAKING. USING OR SELLING THE SAID INVENTION THROUGHOUT THE JTED STATES. 3n testimony toljeuof Aa/ict ' a/id ' caaiecS Me QTrabemarfe (Office ^33lEnt Situ ^ e/au of of dtfe cc/iifect' £ffaSe ' a/ia of e/ie of *Jf/me/>ica MO Sato
------- 18 United States Patent [Ml ENERGY SAVING CIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE HEATERS- [73] Inventor: Francis J. Perhati, Harrington, 111. [73] Assignee: Autothenn, Inc., Harrington, III. [21] Appl. No.: S9.94S [22] Filed: JuL 23, 1979 Related VS. Application Data [63] Continuation-in-part of Scr. No. 911.661. Jun. 1.1971, abandoned. Uil (»] [581 InLO.» U.S.CL [56] B60H 1/02 237/12.3 B; 318/341; 307/315; 417/420; 417/423 R Field of Search ...— 237/12.3 B. 12.3 R; 417/420. 423; 307/315; 123/142.3 E; 318/341 References Cited U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS Re. 26.094 10/1966 1.9)1.143 10/19J) 2.170,032 »/1939 2J30.0SI 1/1941 2.481.172 9/1949 2,5)4,520 12/1950 2.612.SI5 10/1952 417/420 _237/»R 237/113 B 2)7/11) B ._ 417/420 417/420 123/142.3 E [11] [45] 2.801,802 a/1957 Jacluon 2,941.477 6/1960 Dallon 3.074,349 1/1963 Zimmennann 3.269.653 1/1966 Howard 3.306.221 2/1967 Goodpauure 3,626,148 12/1971 Woytowich . 4,308,994 Jan. 5, 1982 237/12.) B 237/12.3 B 237/12.3 B .__ 237/11) B 417/420 417/423 237/12.3 B _ 417/420 T. 123/142.5 E OTHER PUBLICATIONS Electronic Design 7, "Switch your High Power Supply Design". Apr. 1.197S. pp. 116-12Z Solid State Design "of the Darlington Pair". Jun. 1962. Primary Examiner—Henry C Yuen Aaatani Examiner—Henry Bennett Attorney. Agent, or firm—Alter and Weiss [571 ABSTRACT An unproved low power drain circulating system for vehicle heaters utilizing a magnetic motor power assem- bly for selectively circulating hot water from the vehi- cle's engine to the vehicle's heater, even when the en- gine is shut off, and having self-contained control cir- cuitry to further the economical power consumption of the system. 2 Claims, 5 Drawing Figure*
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EPA-AA-TEB-511-85-1 EPA Evaluation of the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System Under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act by William M. Pidgeon January 1985 Test and Evaluation Branch Emission Control Technology Division Office of Mobile Sources U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
------- EPA Evaluation of the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System Under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act The Mobox Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act requires that EPA evaluate fuel economy retrofit devices and publish a summary of each evaluation in the Federal Register. EPA evaluations are originated upon the application of any manufacturer of a retrofit device, upon the request of the Federal Trade Commission, or upon the motion of the EPA Administrator. These studies are designed to determine whether the retrofit device increases fuel economy and to determine whether the representations made with respect to the device are accurate. The results of sxich studies are set forth in a series of reports, of which this is one. The evaluation of the "AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System" was conducted upon the application of the manufacturer. The device allows using the vehicle's heater while parked with the engine off. Using the device is claimed to; 1) conserve fuel, 2) eliminate the exhaust pollutants that are generated when vehicle warmth is maintained by idling the engine, and, 3) lower maintenance costs. The device is also claimed to improve safety by eliminating the need to leave an unattended vehicle with its engine idling to maintain warmth. Carbon monoxide poisoning risks are also alleviated. The device consists of a circulator that pumps engine coolant through the vehicle's heater core to utilize the residual heat in the engine, and electrical circuitry to control the operation of the device. 1. Title: "Application for Evaluation of AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System Under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act" The information contained in sections two through five which followt was supplied by the applicant. •* • 2. Identification Information; a. Marketing Identification of the Product: AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System model numbers 2100, 2100T and 2100TT.
------- b. Inventor and Patent Protection: (1) Inventor Frank J. Perhats 314 E. Main Street Harrington, IL 60010 (2) Patent No. 4,308,994 (See Attachment A) c. Applicant: (1) Frank J. Perhats Autotherm Sales Corp. 314 E. Main Street Harrington, IL 60010 (2) Principals Frank J. Perhats James V. Enright Helen L. Tierney Position titles were not provided (3) Robert 0. Jaeger is authorized to represent Autotherm Sales Corp. in communication with EPA d. Manufacturer of the Product: (1) Autotherm Sales Corp. 314 E. Main Street Harrington, IL 60010 (2) Frank J. Perhats James V. Enright Helen L. Tierney . Position titles were not provided Description of Product: a. Purpose: "To conserve automotive fuel, save on maintenance costs and eliminate vehicular exhaust gas pollution during the period that many vehicles would be kept idling to provide interior warmth during the winter season. These include law enforcement cars on stationary patrol, traffic control or surveillance, utility
------- service and repair vehicles, public works vehicles, commercial/industrial delivery or service vehicles, over the road trucks, etc., all of which can be seen parked with the engine idling during cold weather. -Note: In those cases where the idling vehicle is unattended, the law is being broken in all but four states." b. Applicability: (1) Vehicles "The AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation [System] is applicable to any vehicle with a water cooled engine. Note: We do not as yet have control equipment available for Mercedes Benz vehicles due to their use of vacuum heater controls." (2) Environmental "The AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System is most effective in the colder climates. The enclosed brochure (Form No. TC101) [Attachment B] , shows temperature zones on the map of the contiguous United States with some cities having the average number of annual heating days listed. On the reverse side of the brochure additional cities are listed and a chart developed in the controlled environment of the Cadillac Motor Company and Ford Motor Company wind tunnels, indicates heating time of the AUTOTHERM System for various engiae sizes and outdoor temperatures." c. Theory of Operation; "The AUTOTHERM System uses the heat remaining in the coolant, engine block, etc., when the engine is turned off and circulates the coolant through the vehicle heater and restarts the heater fan. A thermostat turns off the system when coolant temperature reaches f approximately 95°F to prevent unnecessary battery drain." ** m d. Construction and Operation; "The AUTOTHERM kit consists of: (1) "A magnetically driven circulator pump which eliminates shaft seals leading to leakage. The pump is guaranteed against leakage for the life of
------- the original installation. The circulator pump draws approximately 0.5 amps, will circulate over 75% of coolant flow as compared to flow by the engine water pump at idle and has no appreciable restriction to normal heater operation." (2) A thermostat to turn off the AUTOTHERM System when the coolant temperature reaches 95°F. (3) A complete wiring harness, relays, master switch and indicator light. (4) A complete hardware package." e. Specific Claims for the Product: "Brochure AMFSB-36-1 [Attachment C] indicates savings of $750.00 to $1500.00 in fuel and maintenance costs per year. These figures are based primarily on law enforcement figures wherein patrol cars average 2-1/2 to 3 hours parked during an eight hour shift, average engine size of 350 CID in moderate to cold zones. Utility, public works, delivery and service vehicles and taxis often spend an even larger percentage of stationary time. Enclosed is a copy of a fleet fuel survey prepared with the Chicago Police Dept. [Attachment D] using their figures. The savings per car in this case is over $2000.00 annually. A reprint from Law and Order magazine by Deputy Chief Ralph R. Evans also gives savings figures and Report No. 004641 by the Office of Energy Related Inventions of the National Bureau of Standards [Attachment E] supports claims for the AUTOTHERM System on a theoretical basis. The fleet fuel survey portion of forms TC101 [Attachment B] and AM-SB-EV-F-9-001 [Attachment F] make it convenient for each user to determine his or her savings. Use of the AUTOTHERM System eliminates emissions and the effect of excessive idling on engine performance thereby reducing maintenance costs and down . time." F.'- Cost And Marketing Information; "Retail price sheet form L-l-005 [Attachment G] is enclosed. The AUTOTHERM System has been marketed for over five years through manufacturer's agents, by direct mail, media advertising and exhibiting at law enforcement, fleet and energy conservation conventions."
------- Product Installation, Operation, Safety and Maintenance: a. Installation - Instructions, Equipment, and Skills Required: "A thorough, explicit AUTOTHERM installation and owners manual [Attachment H] is enclosed with each AUTOTHERM kit. A copy is enclosed. No special skills or tools are needed for installation." b. Operation: "A dash or visor stick-on instruction label, form AM-D-6-2M [Attachment I] is included in each AUTOTHERM kit." c. Effects on Vehicle Safety: "Since the purpose and function of the AUTOTHERM System is to eliminate idling there is no contribution to an unsafe condition. The system could contribute to safety in snow country where a stalled vehicle could be kept warm on a minimum amount of fuel and minimize the risk of CO poisoning." d. Maintenance: "No routine maintenance is required." Effects on Emissions and Fuel-Economy: a. Unregulated Emissions: "Since the engine is not running where the AUTOTHERM System is being used there are no exhaust emissions." b. Regulated Emissions and Fuel Economy: "For emissions see 5a, above. Fuel savings will be 100% of amount of expended idling the engine to keep f the interior warm." The follow-ing Sections are EPA's analysis and conclusions for the device.
------- 6. Testing by EPA: EPA-did not test this device. A detailed report of the testing performed by the Department of the Air Force is given in the Air Force "Project Completion Report No. HP-81-16, Autotherm Heater Car Comfort System (AFR 77-5)," provided as Attachment J. A brief description of this testing effort is given in Section 7e. 7. Analysis a. Identification Information; Marketing Identification: EPA knows of no problems with respect to the identification information. b. Description: (1) The primary purposes of the device are to eliminate fuel consumption and exhaust emissions during periods when vehicle operators idle their engines to maintain heater operation. The device allows vehicle interior warmth to be maintained without idling the engine. The device is generally marketed for fleet operators such as police departments, utility service and repair vehicles, taxicabs and over the road trucks, etc., which are commonly parked with their engines idling to maintain interior warmth'during cold weather. (2) In determining the applicability of the device, EPA requested additional information (Attachment K) concerning the applicant's claim that the device could not be used with "Mercedes Benz vehicles due to their use of vacuum heater controls." In their letter of August 10, 1984 (Attachment L) the applicant clarified the statement and said that the device can be used in any vehicle except those "whose vacuum controlled air mix door switches to the air conditioning mode on engine shutdown. The 1974 Chrysler was the last American car made with that system. We have not checked Mercedes beyond the 19J79 model year since practically none of the fleets using the AUTOTHERM system have Mercedes vehicles." * V After receiving this letter, EPA noted a statement in the Fleet Fuel Survey - Form Number AM-SB-EV-F-001 11/81-5M (Attachment F) that said the Model 2100 Energy Conservation System would not work on vehicles with an automatic temperature control heater, but a new model "especially designed for such installation will shortly be available."
------- 8 In summary, the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System is applicable to any water cooled vehicle that does not have: a) a vacuum controlled air mix door that switches to the air conditioning mode on engine shutdown, or b) an automatic temperature control heater. (3) The theory of operation given in the application was sound but rather brief and did not incorporate the supplementary information that was sent with Autotherm Sales Corporation's application. This additional information included: a) brochure AMFSB-36-1-82-25M (Attachment C), and b) "Fleet Fuel Survey" - Form Number AM-SB-EV-F-001 11/81-5M. (Attachment F) EPA informed Autotherm Sales Corporation (Attachment K) that EPA would assume that the applicant wished to reference this information "to meet the requirements of Section 3c of the Application Format." Autotherm Sales Corporation's response (Attachment L) did not explicitly state that EPA's assumption was correct, but did imply that they approved it and further suggested that: "If you believe it applicable, "report 004641, Office of Energy Related Inventions, National Bureau of Standards, might also afford additional information to Section 3c." This report is provided as Attachment E. (4) The cost of the device is $172.70 each, in quantities of four or less. Attachment G includes a price list with information on parts prices and quantity discounts. Installation costs were indirectly addressed in one of Autotherm's sales brochures (Attachment C) which claimed; "The system is complete and can be easily installed in less than one hour." EPA judges that most installations will take more than one hour mainly due to the numerous electrical wiring connections. The Air Force experience corroborates EPA's judgment. Their professional mechanics' labor time on four vehicles ranged from 2-1/2 hours to 7 hours with an average of 5-3/4 Jiours. [Attachment J] Repeated installations, such as on fleets comprised of one vehicle model, should result in more rapid"'installation times. c. Installation, Operation, Safety and Maintenance: (1) Installation - Instructions, Equipment and Skills Required; EPA's review did not detect any problems with the installation instructions (Attachment H), but EPA did not put the instructions to the test by installing a device. However,
------- the installation instructions seemed to provide good explanations of the procedures and included pictorials and a schematic-. The Air Force commented that the "installation instructions appear to be adequate and easily read by the mechanics." (Attachment J) The applicant stated in Section 4a that no special skills were required for installation, but the installation manual gives the following advice: "A V.O.M. (volt-ohm-milliamp meter) will be very useful in locating key points in the vehicle electrical circuit as well as in trouble shooting." (Attachment H) This statement implies that electrical wiring experience would be helpful. EPA's judgment, based on its review of the installation manual, is that the installer should have some experience with automotive wiring before attempting this installation. The circulator inlet and outlet fittings are stepped to facilitate installation in heater hose diameters of 1/2", 5/8", or 3/4". The 1/2" diameter circulator fittings will probably restrict coolant flow in 5/8" and 3/4" diameter hoses. The c-irculator impeller will also restrict the flow in any of these hose sizes, so a minor loss in vehicle heater performance should be expected in most installations. EPA expects the operating instructions label (Attachment I) to be easily followed. (2) Effects on Vehicle Safety: The applicant's comments on safety in Section 4c are reasonable and substantiated by the following Air Force comment: ^ "The safety aspects of using the Autotherm f unit in lieu of engine idling for periods of time will surely deter possible carbon monoxide poisoning. The best safety aspect is maintaining a warm vehicle while not leaving a vehicle engine idling and vehicle unattended. Although this is against AF policy, it still happens on inclement days." (Attachment J)
------- 10 (3) Maintenance: EPA agrees with the applicant's claim that no maintenance is needed. d. Effects on Emissions and Fuel Economy; (1) Emissions: The applicant did not submit test data in accordance with the Federal Test Procedure and the Highway Fuel Economy Test. These two test procedures are the primary ones recognized by EPA for evaluation of fuel economy and emissions for light-duty vehicles.* Although the applicant did not submit test data, EPA agrees with the applicant's following statement in their application regarding regulated and unregulated emissions: "Since the engine is not running where the AUTOTHERM System is being used there are no emissions." However, there are other considerations. A vehicle may emit more emissions upon starting after using the AUTOTHERM System than if the system had not been used. Using the device cools the engine faster than not using it, and it is generally accepted that hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions tend to increase as engine temperature decreases from its normal operating temperature. Therefore, engine startup after use of the device is expected to result in higher HC and CO emissions until normal operating temperature is reached. But if the device is used to eliminate engine idling, the increased emissions upon startup is expected to be insignificant compared to the idle emissions that would otherwise occur. Considering these points, EPA's judgment is that the Autotherm system will not adversely affect regulated or unregulated emissions. EPA did not require testing to verify this judgment. The requirement for test data following these procedures is seated in the policy documents that EPA sends to each p'blfential applicant. EPA requires duplicate test sequences before and after installation of the device on a minimum of two vehicles. A test sequence consists of a cold start FTP plus a HFET or, as .a simplified alternative, a hot start LA-4 plus a HFET. Other data which have been collected in accordance with other standardized procedures are acceptable as supplemental data in EPA's preliminary evaluation of a device.
------- 11 (2) Fuel Economy: -— EPA normally predicts fuel savings for devices on a miles per gallon basis. The Autotherm System is not used while the vehicle is being driven so miles per gallon is not an appropriate measure to predict fuel savings. Instead, EPA has chosen to predict fuel savings in gallons per year for two scenarios. The first scenario is for a small car owner who would use the device three times a week for a half hour each time through the winter months. The second scenario is for a police department with a large light-duty vehicle that is used seven days a week, 24 hours a day, with two hours of device use per eight hour shift. Because there are many variables that determine the actual fuel savings, these scenarios were designed to give the upper and lower limits for applications that might be considered reasonable applications for the device. The assumptions for each case are: Minimal Usage Maximal Usage Heading Season (weeks) 12 24 Device Usage (hours/week) 1.5 42 Engine Displacement (in.3/L) 85/1.4 400/6.6 Idle Fuel Consumption (gal/hr) 0.15 1.0 Fuel Savings (gal/year)* 2.7 1,008 The results indicate that owners' of small vehicles with short winters who infrequently use the device might only save three gallons of fuel per year, whereas a police department with large' vehicles, long winters and frequent device usage could save a thousand gallons of fuel per year on one car. e. Test Results Obtained by EPA; The device was independently evaluated by the National Bureau of Standards and the Air Force prior to the applicant's request for an EPA evaluation. EPA deemed that the information and da-fea from these reports combined with engineering judgment would,,* ^enable EPA to derive conclusions without additional testing. EPA therefore did not test the device. *Fuel Savings (Gallons)=Weeks Use X Hours Use X Idle Fuel Gals Year Year Week Hour
------- 12 The Bureau of Standards did a theoretical analysis, but did not test the device. Their report concluded: "Autotherm is technically sound in concept and design, and should perform basically as claimed." (Attachment E) The Air Force reported the following results: "Comfortable vehicle interior warmth was maintained as follows: Time in Minutes Outside Ambient 40 12°F Snowing/no wind 35 12°F Snowing/no wind 31 28°F Slight wind 45 38°F No appreciable wind Potential safety hazards related to carbon monoxide poisoning and vehicle runaway are considerably reduced when employing Autotherm units. Gallons of gasoline saved varied from 0.76 gallons/hour to 2.3 gallons/hour* for six cylinder vehicles. Cost analysis provided showed bases with a winter season of mean temperatures below 40°F, employing car comfort systems in 10 vehicles will realize savings of approximately EPA assumed that idle fuel consumption would range between 0.15 gallons per hour and -1.0 gallons per hour in its calculations for potential fuel savings. This 1.0 maximum is significantly less than the 2.3 gallon per hour maximum that the Air Force found. They listed idle fuel consumption data for five six cylinder vehicles that ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 gallons per hour. The cubic inch displacements (CIDs) were not given, but they probably ranged f rom ' 225 to 300 CID, based on EPA's knowledge of these vehicles. Their report does not discuss which vehicle was found to consume 2.3 gallons per hour at idle, but this consumption rate is considerably higher than EPA woyld expect to see on a light-duty vehicle. EPA regulations define a light-duty vehicle to mean a passenger dar or passenger car derivative capable of seating twelve passengers or less. The engines in the five known vehicles are old designs that are no longer being sold in light-duty vehicles, so the fuel consumption range of 0.7 to 0.9 is reasonable for older less efficient designs. EPA data on two 1977 vehicles include 0.90 gallons per hour for a 460 CID engine and 0.99 gallons per hour on a 400 CID engine. EPA's judgment is that 0.15 to 1.0 gallons per hour is representative of the range in idle fuel consumption for most light-duty vehicles manufactured between 1975 and 1985.
------- 13 $2600 and 2000 gallons of gasoline over the winter season.** Tangible savings of over $1000 per vehicle equipped with Autotherm units during 5 year life expectance is probable. AF wide saving's for 100 bases with 10 vehicles/base equipped with these units would approximate $1,000,000 over a 5 year period." (Attachment J) The time that vehicle warmth is maintained is dependent on weather conditions, vehicle interior volume, and the vehicle's engine size. The Air Force data indicated that 2.3 litre - 4 cylinder engine maintained vehicle warmth for 35 minutes whereas a 225 cubic inch (3.7 litre) engine maintained vehicle warmth for 40 minutes under the same weather conditions. A truck or police vehicle with a 400 cubic inch engine could be expected to maintain warmth for significantly longer periods of time, all else being equal. The Air Force results clearly show that the device will maintain comfortable vehicle temperatures for significant durations with the engine turned off. Therefore, if used, the device will fulfill the applicant's claims for improved fuel economy, vehicle comfort, and safety, while decreasing maintenance costs and exhaust emissions. The degree to which these advantages 'are realized will vary with the amount of time that drivers will forego idling and use the device. EPA asked the applicant if they had any information on the utilization rates for the device (Attachment K). Their response was as follows: "We have no quantitative data on percentage use of the Autotherm system and we •have had fleet administrators -- primarily law enforcement -- decline to purchase AUTOTHERM kits based on the fact that they did not believe all of their drivers would use them. Those who purchased the AUTOTHERM system usually ran a test and determined that they could control usage and a savings would result before ordering large quantities. A number of fleet operators have told us the AUTOTHERM system was so well received, they would probably have the system installed for the comfort and morale of their drivers even without a savings. We would not j: expect 100% usage, but habits can be broken since it is certainly more comfortable to sit in a parked vehicle " without the noise, vibration and possible exhaust ** The Air Force estimates assume 200 hours of device use per year for each vehicle. This would amount to 1.7 hours per day for 120 days (4 months), which is significantly less than EPA's assumed maximum usage. The Air Force also assumed 0.76 gallons per hour at idle, whereas EPA assumed a maximum idle fuel consumption of 1.0 gallons per hour.
------- 14 blowback of an idling engine. Another point regarding those who leave the engine idling while they are not in the vehicle is that they are breaking the law in all but" four states by leaving the vehicle unattended with .the engine running." (Attachment L) One possible disadvantage of using the device is the potential for draining the vehicle's battery and the attendant risk of insufficient energy for starting. The Air Force report included data on the device's current draw on two vehicles. It ranged from 2 amps to 11 amps, but the highest draw with the heater fan on low speed was 4 amps. The applicant's operating instructions (Attachment I) specifically say "DO NOT operate fan on high or medium high speeds while using AUTOTHERM." The Air Force did not report any problems with insufficient battery capacity and EPA's- judgment is that it will not cause a problem on vehicles with properly maintained batteries and charging systems. Comments from vehicle operators in the Bureau of Standards report and the Air Force report support the applicant's statements. The author of the National Bureau of Standards report said: "I also discussed the invention with two members of the Michigan State Highway Patrol and examined the installation of their vehicle during a trip to Detroit on February 26, 1980; their reaction to the device was favorable and confirmed the performance claims of approximately 1 hour's heat..." (Attachment E) This vehicle had a large displacement V-8 engine. The Air Force report included the following: "The users were contacted for their comments on the use of installed Autotherm unit. In all cases the operators were very impressed with the comfort provided by the unit without engine running. The taxi driver on the day shift was very impressed with the unit since he ^ would sometimes park awaiting dispatch. With the unit 4 operating during these times his vehicle was always ' comfortably warm. The same comments were noted by Security Police operators during the day-time and also night operations." (Attachment J). Because there are no significant disadvantages associated with using the device on vehicles with properly maintained batteries and charging systems, EPA's judgment is that the advantages of using the system will motivate vehicle operators to use the device.
------- 15 8. Conclusions EPA fully considered all of the information submitted by the applicant. The evaluation of the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System was based on that information and the results of an Air Force test project. Based on engineering judgment, the National Bureau of Standards evaluation, and the Air Force data, EPA concludes that, when used, the Autotherm Energy Conservation System will conserve fuel and lower exhaust emissions. In most cases, fuel savings should fall between 0.15 and 1.0 gallons of fuel per hour of device use. Engine size and efficiency are the primary determinants of the actual gallons saved per hour of device usage. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Merrill W. Korth, Emission Control Technology Division, Office of Mobile Sources, Environmental Protection Agency, 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, (313) 668-4299.
------- 16 List of Attachments Attachment A Patent Application (provided with 511 Application) Attachment B "Fleet Fuel Survey," Form Number TC-101-9/83. Attachment C Brochure AMFSB-36-1/82-25M, a sales brochure without a title. Attachment D "Engine Idle - Fuel Consumption Analysis," Example Study - Chicago Police Department. Attachment E "Final Technical Review - Autotherm Car Comfort System," OERI No. 004641, Office of Energy Related Inventions, National Bureau of Standards. Attachment F "Fleet Fuel Survey," Form No. AM-SB-EV-F-9-001 11/81-5M. Attachment G Price List and Warranty, Form No. L-l-005-9/83. Attachment H "Installation and Owner's Manual," P/N 01078 11/82. Attachment I "Operating Instructions Label," Form No. AM-D-6-2-4/83 Attachment J Recommendations Resulting from MEEP Project Number H81-16C, Autotherm Heater, Car Comfort System (AFR 77-5), September 22, 1982. Attached to these recommendations is Project Completion Report No. HP 81-16 on the Autotherm Heater. Attachment K Letter of July 26, 1984 from EPA to Robert Jaeger of AUTOTHERM Sales Corporation requesting clarification of information in the application and additional information. Attachment L Letter of August 10, 1984 from Robert O. Jaeger - of Autotherm Sales Corporation to EPA responding ,., to EPA request.
------- 17 ATTACHMENT A ^ t M H lire™ TQ> AjM^TQl WjQMf HIKES.E'. BRjESEMCgi SHAftH. :BIlf J? i 1 - R4 sp( i &i 'vvv Vjv/1*1 M "*, ^1 ^i T - «J V&7 PI [— ©— 1 i6 4- -48 ; _ . __ -l-n 7 ! ^ j I si r~*^x Kl"2 W


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------- 20 4,308,994 1 2 heated air is supplied to the vehicle, while the engine is •rorv HAVING CIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR shut off. Thus, the already existing automobile's hot E.SERGY yJijcLE HEATERS water system is utilized directly without provision of an ' auxiliary valve control circuit system. • . . . j in 0^ Of my previous applica- J Improvements to the systems shown in U.S. Pat. No*. • ^L1* MCI11 «l 1 now abandoned, filed on June I. 2,230,051 and 2.170,032 have been made in such patents •97» titledI ENERGY SAVING CIRCULATING as that of Jackson. U.S. PaL No. 3,801.802, which SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE HEATERS. teaches the use of integrated motor pump assemblies TTiis invention relates generally to vehicular and which are directly inserted into • vehicle's hot water automotive heaters; and more particularly, to improved 10 circuit. Additionally, automatic on/off switching de- energy laving auxiliary fluid circulating systems which vices and thermostatic controls have been devised to can b* selectively used when the vehicle's engine is improve the operation and effectiveness of the type of turned oft auxiliary heating system as set forth, for example, in In the area of vehicular heating systems, it is benefi- ij.S. PlL No. 2,230,051. cial to selectively circulate the engine's "cooling" fluid. 1J There are basic problems inherent in the presently even while the vehicle's engine is not running. For available auxiliary hot water systems for providing hot example, the user of the vehicle then utilizes the vehi- wtter (-^^1,^0,, through the automobile heater, even cle's heater, while the vehicle's engine itself is shut off wni]e ,ne engjne ;, not ^ing operated. The hot water by circulating heated fluid through its "eater. Many system of most present day vehicles is pressuriied. The benefits accrue to the user of such a system who does 20 ^ pre$$ures lccentuate the necessity of preventing not have to run the vehicle's engine to obtain heat from \ea]Ul&e> especially around the shaft of the auxiliary the vehicle's heater in cooler weather pump ^^ -m Ae tluuliiry circulating systems. Wiih conventional automotive heater systems, for Solving the leakage problems by increasing, the pack- example, the user must keep the engine idling to keep . ^^ ^ jhift m lccentuate$ ^o^ M. the vehicle's heater functional, whether he isdnvmg or 23 fand ^^ ,em ;ncreaii ,he fricti noL Thus, vehicles which are parked for eumpfemust ^ mn^aeM Trading - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection fncreasing Jhe system', power drain- w«te precious energy, pollute he aunosphere and ac- EF Commander 19.05 License Key - Crack Key For U fj^u^ w ^ effete. ^ ^ £ser,y m itl tually foul present day "«*«?%£»'* en«inei m& usage of thefonited power available. to obtam heat from the vehicle sheater invention relates to the novel combination of The ability to circulate, independently of the veni- JO . de^enginX already heatedfluid within the vehi- P"* f* controls which minimize power usage; and de'I circulating apparatus or fluids heated by devices. nonedie ess. provuJe an extremely reliable long lived ^Serslon^eater*. enables extended use of the cuculating system for vehade beaten. vehicle's heater to transfer w«m air into the vehicle's A magneUcally coupled "flow through" cenUrfugd pusenger compartments. The need for vehicular heater 35 P""' f6™"* B P""1" m «»^tenl1caP»b!e °f ctT^' systems that can warm the passengers, even when the **** >>(« water through a vehicle's heater, when the vehicle engine is turned off. has long been PaperScan Professional Edition Crack Download *»*>"* °rAe velude » shu« off- T"6 comb,nat,on of the and accordingly, systems have been designed to fill EF Commander 19.05 License Key - Crack Key For U heater circult *"* » magnetically dnven centrifugal need EF Commander 19.05 License Key - Crack Key For U pump assembly preferably utilizes the type of pump Systems utilized to continue the circulation of the
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------- EF Commander 19.05 License Key - Crack Key For U 20 4,308,994 1 2 heated air is supplied to the vehicle, while the engine is •rorv HAVING CIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR shut off. Thus, the already existing automobile's hot E.SERGY yJijcLE HEATERS water system is utilized directly without provision of an EF Commander 19.05 License Key - Crack Key For U ' auxiliary valve control circuit system. •. j in 0^ Of my previous applica- J Improvements to the systems shown in U.S. Pat. No*. • ^L1* MCI11 «l 1 now abandoned, filed on June I. 2,230,051 and 2.170,032 have been made in such patents •97» titledI ENERGY SAVING CIRCULATING as that of Jackson. U.S. PaL No. 3,801.802, which SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE HEATERS. teaches the use of integrated motor pump assemblies TTiis invention relates generally to vehicular and which are directly inserted into • vehicle's hot water automotive heaters; and more particularly, to improved 10 circuit. Additionally, automatic on/off switching de- energy laving auxiliary fluid circulating systems which vices and thermostatic controls have been devised to can b* selectively used when the vehicle's engine is improve the operation and effectiveness of the type of turned oft auxiliary heating system as set forth, for example, in In the area of vehicular heating systems, it is benefi- ij.S. PlL No. 2,230,051. cial to selectively circulate the engine's "cooling" fluid. 1J There are basic problems inherent in the presently even while the vehicle's engine is not running. For available auxiliary hot water systems for providing hot example, the user of the vehicle then utilizes the vehi- wtter (-^^1,^0, through the automobile heater, even cle's heater, while the vehicle's engine itself is shut off wni]e ,ne engjne ;, not ^ing operated. The hot water EF Commander 19.05 License Key - Crack Key For U by circulating heated fluid through its "eater. Many system of most present day vehicles is pressuriied. The benefits accrue to the user of such a system who does 20 ^ pre$$ures lccentuate the necessity of preventing not have to run the vehicle's engine to obtain heat from \ea]Ul&e> especially around the shaft of the auxiliary the vehicle's heater in cooler weather pump ^^ -m Ae tluuliiry circulating systems. Wiih conventional automotive heater systems, for Solving the leakage problems by increasing, the pack- example, the user must keep the engine idling to keep . ^^ ^ jhift m lccentuate$ ^o^ M. the vehicle's heater functional, whether he isdnvmg or 23

EF Commander 19.05 Multilingual Full Version

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EF Commanderis a complex and multi-featured file manager that a wide range of users, from beginners to professionals, will find easy to use. It is the result of many requests received by the author. The first version was written in 1994, under the OS/2 operating system using Presentation Manager, as a personal replacement for the old DOS program Norton Commander™. In 1996 it was ported to the 32-bit Microsoft Windows™ operating system.

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EPA-AA-TEB-511-85-1 EPA Evaluation of the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System Under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act by William M. Pidgeon January 1985 Test and Evaluation Branch Emission Control Technology Division Office of Mobile Sources U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
------- EPA Evaluation of the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System Under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act The Mobox Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act requires that EPA evaluate fuel economy retrofit devices and publish a summary of each evaluation in the Federal Register. EPA evaluations are originated upon the application of any manufacturer of a retrofit device, upon the request of the Federal Trade Commission, or upon the motion of the EPA Administrator. These studies are designed to determine whether the retrofit device increases fuel economy and to determine whether the representations made with respect to the device are accurate. The results of sxich studies are set forth in a series of reports, of which this is one. The evaluation of the "AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System" was conducted upon the application of the manufacturer. The device allows using the vehicle's heater while parked with the engine off. Using the device is claimed to; 1) conserve fuel, 2) eliminate the exhaust pollutants that are generated when vehicle warmth is maintained by idling the engine, and, 3) lower maintenance costs. The device is also claimed to improve safety by eliminating the need to leave an unattended vehicle with its engine idling to maintain warmth. Carbon monoxide poisoning risks are also alleviated. The device consists of a circulator that pumps engine coolant through the vehicle's heater core to utilize the residual heat in the engine, and electrical circuitry to control the operation of the device. 1. Title: "Application for Evaluation of AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System Under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act" The information contained in sections two through five which followt was supplied by the applicant. •* • 2. Identification Information; a. Marketing Identification of the Product: AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System model numbers 2100, 2100T and 2100TT.
------- b. Inventor and Patent Protection: (1) Inventor Frank J. Perhats 314 E. Main Street Harrington, IL 60010 (2) Patent No. 4,308,994 (See Attachment A) c. Applicant: (1) Frank J. Perhats Autotherm Sales Corp. 314 E. Main Street Harrington, IL 60010 (2) Principals Frank J. Perhats James V. Enright Helen L. Tierney Position titles were not provided (3) Robert 0. Jaeger is authorized to represent Autotherm Sales Corp. in communication with EPA d. Manufacturer of the Product: (1) Autotherm Sales Corp. 314 E. Main Street Harrington, IL 60010 (2) Frank J. Perhats James V. Enright Helen L. Tierney . Position titles were not provided Description of Product: a. Purpose: "To conserve automotive fuel, save on maintenance costs and eliminate vehicular exhaust gas pollution during the period that many vehicles would be kept idling to provide interior warmth during the winter season. These include law enforcement cars on stationary patrol, traffic control or surveillance, utility
------- service and repair vehicles, public works vehicles, commercial/industrial delivery or service vehicles, over the road trucks, etc., all of which can be seen parked with the engine idling during cold weather. -Note: In those cases where the idling vehicle is unattended, the law is being broken in all but four states." b. Applicability: (1) Vehicles "The AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation [System] is applicable to any vehicle with a water cooled engine. Note: We do not as yet have control equipment available for Mercedes Benz vehicles due to their use of vacuum heater controls." (2) Environmental "The AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System is most effective in the colder climates. The enclosed brochure (Form No. TC101) [Attachment B] , shows temperature zones on the map of the contiguous United States with some cities having the average number of annual heating days listed. On the reverse side of the brochure additional cities are listed and a chart developed in the controlled environment of the Cadillac Motor Company and Ford Motor Company wind tunnels, indicates heating time of the AUTOTHERM System for various engiae sizes and outdoor temperatures." c. Theory of Operation; "The AUTOTHERM System uses the heat remaining in the coolant, engine block, etc., when the engine is turned off and circulates the coolant through the vehicle heater and restarts the heater fan. A thermostat turns off the system when coolant temperature reaches f approximately 95°F to prevent unnecessary battery drain." ** m d. Construction and Operation; "The AUTOTHERM kit consists of: (1) "A magnetically driven circulator pump which eliminates shaft seals leading to leakage. The pump is guaranteed against leakage for the life of
------- the original installation. The circulator pump draws approximately 0.5 amps, will circulate over 75% of coolant flow as compared to flow by the engine water pump at idle and has no appreciable restriction to normal heater operation." (2) A thermostat to turn off the AUTOTHERM System when the coolant temperature reaches 95°F. (3) A complete wiring harness, relays, master switch and indicator light. (4) A complete hardware package." e. Specific Claims for the Product: "Brochure AMFSB-36-1 [Attachment C] indicates savings of $750.00 to $1500.00 in fuel and maintenance costs per year. These figures are based primarily on law enforcement figures wherein patrol cars average 2-1/2 to 3 hours parked during an eight hour shift, average engine size of 350 CID in moderate to cold zones. Utility, public works, delivery and service vehicles and taxis often spend an even larger percentage of stationary time. Enclosed is a copy of a fleet fuel survey prepared with the Chicago Police Dept. [Attachment D] using their figures. The savings per car in this case is over $2000.00 annually. A reprint from Law and Order magazine by Deputy Chief Ralph R. Evans also gives savings figures and Report No. 004641 by the Office of Energy Related Inventions of the National Bureau of Standards [Attachment E] supports claims for the AUTOTHERM System on a theoretical basis. The fleet fuel survey portion of forms TC101 [Attachment B] and AM-SB-EV-F-9-001 [Attachment F] make it convenient for each user to determine his or her savings. Use of the AUTOTHERM System eliminates emissions and the effect of excessive idling on engine performance thereby reducing maintenance costs and down . time." F.'- Cost And Marketing Information; "Retail price sheet form L-l-005 [Attachment G] is enclosed. The AUTOTHERM System has been marketed for over five years through manufacturer's agents, by direct mail, media advertising and exhibiting at law enforcement, fleet and energy conservation conventions."
------- Product Installation, Operation, Safety and Maintenance: a. Installation - Instructions, Equipment, and Skills Required: "A thorough, explicit AUTOTHERM installation and owners manual [Attachment H] is enclosed with each AUTOTHERM kit. A copy is enclosed. No special skills or tools are needed for installation." b. Operation: "A dash or visor stick-on instruction label, form AM-D-6-2M [Attachment I] is included in each AUTOTHERM kit." c. Effects on Vehicle Safety: "Since the purpose and function of the AUTOTHERM System is to eliminate idling there is no contribution to an unsafe condition. The system could contribute to safety in snow country where a stalled vehicle could be kept warm on a minimum amount of fuel and minimize the risk of CO poisoning." d. Maintenance: "No routine maintenance is required." Effects on Emissions and Fuel-Economy: a. Unregulated Emissions: "Since the engine is not running where the AUTOTHERM System is being used there are no exhaust emissions." b. Regulated Emissions and Fuel Economy: "For emissions see 5a, above. Fuel savings will be 100% of amount of expended idling the engine to keep f the interior warm." The follow-ing Sections are EPA's analysis and conclusions for the device.
------- 6. Testing by EPA: EPA-did not test this device. A detailed report of the testing performed by the Department of the Air Force is given in the Air Force "Project Completion Report No. HP-81-16, Autotherm Heater Car Comfort System (AFR 77-5)," provided as Attachment J. A brief description of this testing effort is given in Section 7e. 7. Analysis a. Identification Information; Marketing Identification: EPA knows of no problems with respect to the identification information. b. Description: (1) The primary purposes of the device are to eliminate fuel consumption and exhaust emissions during periods when vehicle operators idle their engines to maintain heater operation. The device allows vehicle interior warmth to be maintained without idling the engine. The device is generally marketed for fleet operators such as police departments, utility service and repair vehicles, taxicabs and over the road trucks, etc., which are commonly parked with their engines idling to maintain interior warmth'during cold weather. (2) In determining the applicability of the device, EPA requested additional information (Attachment K) concerning the applicant's claim that the device could not be used with "Mercedes Benz vehicles due to their use of vacuum heater controls." In their letter of August 10, 1984 (Attachment L) the applicant clarified the statement and said that the device can be used in any vehicle except those "whose vacuum controlled air mix door switches to the air conditioning mode on engine shutdown. The 1974 Chrysler was the last American car made with that system. We have not checked Mercedes beyond the 19J79 model year since practically none of the fleets using the AUTOTHERM system have Mercedes vehicles." * V After receiving this letter, EPA noted a statement in the Fleet Fuel Survey - Form Number AM-SB-EV-F-001 11/81-5M (Attachment F) that said the Model 2100 Energy Conservation System would not work on vehicles with an automatic temperature control heater, but a new model "especially designed for such installation will shortly be available."
------- 8 In summary, the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System is applicable to any water cooled vehicle that does not have: a) a vacuum controlled air mix door that switches to the air conditioning mode on engine shutdown, or b) an automatic temperature control heater. (3) The theory of operation given in the application was sound but rather brief and did not incorporate the supplementary information that was sent with Autotherm Sales Corporation's application. This additional information included: a) brochure AMFSB-36-1-82-25M (Attachment C), and b) "Fleet Fuel Survey" - Form Number AM-SB-EV-F-001 11/81-5M. (Attachment F) EPA informed Autotherm Sales Corporation (Attachment K) that EPA would assume that the applicant wished to reference this information "to meet the requirements of Section 3c of the Application Format." Autotherm Sales Corporation's response (Attachment L) did not explicitly state that EPA's assumption was correct, but did imply that they approved it and further suggested that: "If you believe it applicable, "report 004641, Office of Energy Related Inventions, National Bureau of Standards, might also afford additional information to Section 3c." This report is provided as Attachment E. (4) The cost of the device is $172.70 each, in quantities of four or less. Attachment G includes a price list with information on parts prices and quantity discounts. Installation costs were indirectly addressed in one of Autotherm's sales brochures (Attachment C) which claimed; "The system is complete and can be easily installed in less than one hour." EPA judges that most installations will take more than one hour mainly due to the numerous electrical wiring connections. The Air Force experience corroborates EPA's judgment. Their professional mechanics' labor time on four vehicles ranged from 2-1/2 hours to 7 hours with an average of 5-3/4 Jiours. [Attachment J] Repeated installations, such as on fleets comprised of one vehicle model, should result in more rapid"'installation times. c. Installation, Operation, Safety and Maintenance: (1) Installation - Instructions, Equipment and Skills Required; EPA's review did not detect any problems with the installation instructions (Attachment H), but EPA did not put the instructions to the test by installing a device. However,
------- the installation instructions seemed to provide good explanations of the procedures and included pictorials and a schematic-. The Air Force commented that the "installation instructions appear to be adequate and easily read by the mechanics." (Attachment J) The applicant stated in Section 4a that no special skills were required for installation, but the installation manual gives the following advice: "A V.O.M. (volt-ohm-milliamp meter) will be very useful in locating key points in the vehicle electrical circuit as well as in trouble shooting." (Attachment H) This statement implies that electrical wiring experience would be helpful. EPA's judgment, based on its review of the installation manual, is that the installer should have some experience with automotive wiring before attempting this installation. The circulator inlet and outlet fittings are stepped to facilitate installation in heater hose diameters of 1/2", 5/8", or 3/4". The 1/2" diameter circulator fittings will probably restrict coolant flow in 5/8" and 3/4" diameter hoses. The c-irculator impeller will also restrict the flow in any of these hose sizes, so a minor loss in vehicle heater performance should be expected in most installations. EPA expects the operating instructions label (Attachment I) to be easily followed. (2) Effects on Vehicle Safety: The applicant's comments on safety in Section 4c are reasonable and substantiated by the following Air Force comment: ^ "The safety aspects of using the Autotherm f unit in lieu of engine idling for periods of time will surely deter possible carbon monoxide poisoning. The best safety aspect is maintaining a warm vehicle while not leaving a vehicle engine idling and vehicle unattended. Although this is against AF policy, it still happens on inclement days." (Attachment J)
------- 10 (3) Maintenance: EPA agrees with the applicant's claim that no maintenance is needed. d. Effects on Emissions and Fuel Economy; (1) Emissions: The applicant did not submit test data in accordance with the Federal Test Procedure and the Highway Fuel Economy Test. These two test procedures are the primary ones recognized by EPA for evaluation of fuel economy and emissions for light-duty vehicles.* Although the applicant did not submit test data, EPA agrees with the applicant's following statement in their application regarding regulated and unregulated emissions: "Since the engine is not running where the AUTOTHERM System is being used there are no emissions." However, there are other considerations. A vehicle may emit more emissions upon starting after using the AUTOTHERM System than if the system had not been used. Using the device cools the engine faster than not using it, and it is generally accepted that hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions tend to increase as engine temperature decreases from its normal operating temperature. Therefore, engine startup after use of the device is expected to result in higher HC and CO emissions until normal operating temperature is reached. But if the device is used to eliminate engine idling, the increased emissions upon startup is expected to be insignificant compared to the idle emissions that would otherwise occur. Considering these points, EPA's judgment is that the Autotherm system will not adversely affect regulated or unregulated emissions. EPA did not require testing to verify this judgment. The requirement for test data following these procedures is seated in the policy documents that EPA sends to each p'blfential applicant. EPA requires duplicate test sequences before and after installation of the device on a minimum of two vehicles. A test sequence consists of a cold start FTP plus a HFET or, as .a simplified alternative, a hot start LA-4 plus a HFET. Other data which have been collected in accordance with other standardized procedures are acceptable as supplemental data in EPA's preliminary evaluation of a device.
------- 11 (2) Fuel Economy: -— EPA normally predicts fuel savings for devices on a miles per gallon basis. The Autotherm System is not used while the vehicle is being driven so miles per gallon is not an appropriate measure to predict fuel savings. Instead, EPA has chosen to predict fuel savings in gallons per year for two scenarios. The first scenario is for a small car owner who would use the device three times a week for a half hour each time through the winter months. The second scenario is for a police department with a large light-duty vehicle that is used seven days a week, 24 hours a day, with two hours of device use per eight hour shift. Because there are many variables that determine the actual fuel savings, these scenarios were designed to give the upper and lower limits for applications that might be considered reasonable applications for the device. The assumptions for each case are: Minimal Usage Maximal Usage Heading Season (weeks) 12 24 Device Usage (hours/week) 1.5 42 Engine Displacement (in.3/L) 85/1.4 400/6.6 Idle Fuel Consumption (gal/hr) 0.15 1.0 Fuel Savings (gal/year)* 2.7 1,008 The results indicate that owners' of small vehicles with short winters who infrequently use the device might only save three gallons of fuel per year, whereas a police department with large' vehicles, long winters and frequent device usage could save a thousand gallons of fuel per year on one car. e. Test Results Obtained by EPA; The device was independently evaluated by the National Bureau of Standards and the Air Force prior to the applicant's request for an EPA evaluation. EPA deemed that the information and da-fea from these reports combined with engineering judgment would,,* ^enable EPA to derive conclusions without additional testing. EPA therefore did not test the device. *Fuel Savings (Gallons)=Weeks Use X Hours Use X Idle Fuel Gals Year Year Week Hour
------- 12 The Bureau of Standards did a theoretical analysis, but did not test the device. Their report concluded: "Autotherm is technically sound in concept and design, and should perform basically as claimed." (Attachment E) The Air Force reported the following results: "Comfortable vehicle interior warmth was maintained as follows: Time in Minutes Outside Ambient 40 12°F Snowing/no wind 35 12°F Snowing/no wind 31 28°F Slight wind 45 38°F No appreciable wind Potential safety hazards related to carbon monoxide poisoning and vehicle runaway are considerably reduced when employing Autotherm units. Gallons of gasoline saved varied from 0.76 gallons/hour to 2.3 gallons/hour* for six cylinder vehicles. Cost analysis provided showed bases with a winter season of mean temperatures below 40°F, employing car comfort systems in 10 vehicles will realize savings of approximately EPA assumed that idle fuel consumption would range between 0.15 gallons per hour and -1.0 gallons per hour in its calculations for potential fuel savings. This 1.0 maximum is significantly less than the 2.3 gallon per hour maximum that the Air Force found. They listed idle fuel consumption data for five six cylinder vehicles that ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 gallons per hour. The cubic inch displacements (CIDs) were not given, but they probably ranged f rom ' 225 to 300 CID, based on EPA's knowledge of these vehicles. Their report does not discuss which vehicle was found to consume 2.3 gallons per hour at idle, but this consumption rate is considerably higher than EPA woyld expect to see on a light-duty vehicle. EPA regulations define a light-duty vehicle to mean a passenger dar or passenger car derivative capable of seating twelve passengers or less. The engines in the five known vehicles are old designs that are no longer being sold in light-duty vehicles, so the fuel consumption range of 0.7 to 0.9 is reasonable for older less efficient designs. EPA data on two 1977 vehicles include 0.90 gallons per hour for a 460 CID engine and 0.99 gallons per hour on a 400 CID engine. EPA's judgment is that 0.15 to 1.0 gallons per hour is representative of the range in idle fuel consumption for most light-duty vehicles manufactured between 1975 and 1985.
------- 13 $2600 and 2000 gallons of gasoline over the winter season.** Tangible savings of over $1000 per vehicle equipped with Autotherm units during 5 year life expectance is probable. AF wide saving's for 100 bases with 10 vehicles/base equipped with these units would approximate $1,000,000 over a 5 year period." (Attachment J) The time that vehicle warmth is maintained is dependent on weather conditions, vehicle interior volume, and the vehicle's engine size. The Air Force data indicated that 2.3 litre - 4 cylinder engine maintained vehicle warmth for 35 minutes whereas a 225 cubic inch (3.7 litre) engine maintained vehicle warmth for 40 minutes under the same weather conditions. A truck or police vehicle with a 400 cubic inch engine could be expected to maintain warmth for significantly longer periods of time, all else being equal. The Air Force results clearly show that the device will maintain comfortable vehicle temperatures for significant durations with the engine turned off. Therefore, if used, the device will fulfill the applicant's claims for improved fuel economy, vehicle comfort, and safety, while decreasing maintenance costs and exhaust emissions. The degree to which these advantages 'are realized will vary with the amount of time that drivers will forego idling and use the device. EPA asked the applicant if they had any information on the utilization rates for the device (Attachment K). Their response was as follows: "We have no quantitative data on percentage use of the Autotherm system and we •have had fleet administrators -- primarily law enforcement -- decline to purchase AUTOTHERM kits based on the fact that they did not believe all of their drivers would use them. Those who purchased the AUTOTHERM system usually ran a test and determined that they could control usage and a savings would result before ordering large quantities. A number of fleet operators have told us the AUTOTHERM system was so well received, they would probably have the system installed for the comfort and morale of their drivers even without a savings. We would not j: expect 100% usage, but habits can be broken since it is certainly more comfortable to sit in a parked vehicle " without the noise, vibration and possible exhaust ** The Air Force estimates assume 200 hours of device use per year for each vehicle. This would amount to 1.7 hours per day for 120 days (4 months), which is significantly less than EPA's assumed maximum usage. The Air Force also assumed 0.76 gallons per hour at idle, whereas EPA assumed a maximum idle fuel consumption of 1.0 gallons per hour.
------- 14 blowback of an idling engine. Another point regarding those who leave the engine idling while they are not in the vehicle is that they are breaking the law in all but" four states by leaving the vehicle unattended with .the engine running." (Attachment L) One possible disadvantage of using the device is the potential for draining the vehicle's battery and the attendant risk of insufficient energy for starting. The Air Force report included data on the device's current draw on two vehicles. It ranged from 2 amps to 11 amps, but the highest draw with the heater fan on low speed was 4 amps. The applicant's operating instructions (Attachment I) specifically say "DO NOT operate fan on high or medium high speeds while using AUTOTHERM." The Air Force did not report any problems with insufficient battery capacity and EPA's- judgment is that it will not cause a problem on vehicles with properly maintained batteries and charging systems. Comments from vehicle operators in the Bureau of Standards report and the Air Force report support the applicant's statements. The author of the National Bureau of Standards report said: "I also discussed the invention with two members of the Michigan State Highway Patrol and examined the installation of their vehicle during a trip to Detroit on February 26, 1980; their reaction to the device was favorable and confirmed the performance claims of approximately 1 hour's heat..." (Attachment E) This vehicle had a large displacement V-8 engine. The Air Force report included the following: "The users were contacted for their comments on the use of installed Autotherm unit. In all cases the operators were very impressed with the comfort provided by the unit without engine running. The taxi driver on the day shift was very impressed with the unit since he ^ would sometimes park awaiting dispatch. With the unit 4 operating during these times his vehicle was always ' comfortably warm. The same comments were noted by Security Police operators during the day-time and also night operations." (Attachment J). Because there are no significant disadvantages associated with using the device on vehicles with properly maintained batteries and charging systems, EPA's judgment is that the advantages of using the system will motivate vehicle operators to use the device.
------- 15 8. Conclusions EPA fully considered all of the information submitted by the applicant. The evaluation of the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System was based on that information and the results of an Air Force test project. Based on engineering judgment, the National Bureau of Standards evaluation, and the Air Force data, EPA concludes that, when used, the Autotherm Energy Conservation System will conserve fuel and lower exhaust emissions. In most cases, fuel savings should fall between 0.15 and 1.0 gallons of fuel per hour of device use. Engine size and efficiency are the primary determinants of the actual gallons saved per hour of device usage. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Merrill W. Korth, Emission Control Technology Division, Office of Mobile Sources, Environmental Protection Agency, 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, (313) 668-4299.
------- 16 List of Attachments Attachment A Patent Application (provided with 511 Application) Attachment B "Fleet Fuel Survey," Form Number TC-101-9/83. Attachment C Brochure AMFSB-36-1/82-25M, a sales brochure without a title. Attachment D "Engine Idle - Fuel Consumption Analysis," Example Study - Chicago Police Department. Attachment E "Final Technical Review - Autotherm Car Comfort System," OERI No. 004641, Office of Energy Related Inventions, National Bureau of Standards. Attachment F "Fleet Fuel Survey," Form No. AM-SB-EV-F-9-001 11/81-5M. Attachment G Price List and Warranty, Form No. L-l-005-9/83. Attachment H "Installation and Owner's Manual," P/N 01078 11/82. Attachment I "Operating Instructions Label," Form No. AM-D-6-2-4/83 Attachment J Recommendations Resulting from MEEP Project Number H81-16C, Autotherm Heater, Car Comfort System (AFR 77-5), September 22, 1982. Attached to these recommendations is Project Completion Report No. HP 81-16 on the Autotherm Heater. Attachment K Letter of July 26, 1984 from EPA to Robert Jaeger of AUTOTHERM Sales Corporation requesting clarification of information in the application and additional information. Attachment L Letter of August 10, 1984 from Robert O. Jaeger - of Autotherm Sales Corporation to EPA responding ,., to EPA request.
------- 17 ATTACHMENT A ^ t M H lire™ TQ> AjM^TQl WjQMf HIKES.E'. BRjESEMCgi SHAftH. :BIlf J? K. y^i 1 I 1 K2 I — J IGNI' ON C SOU 52 riON )NLY RCE C in • 13 P i-* (T) P NO oo in O •^> to O 00
------- 20 4,308,994 1 2 heated air is supplied to the vehicle, while the engine is •rorv HAVING CIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR shut off. Thus, the already existing automobile's hot E.SERGY yJijcLE HEATERS water system is utilized directly without provision of an ' auxiliary valve control circuit system. • . . . j in 0^ Of my previous applica- J Improvements to the systems shown in U.S. Pat. No*. • ^L1* MCI11 «l 1 now abandoned, filed on June I. 2,230,051 and 2.170,032 have been made in such patents •97» titledI ENERGY SAVING CIRCULATING as that of Jackson. U.S. PaL No. 3,801.802, which SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE HEATERS. teaches the use of integrated motor pump assemblies TTiis invention relates generally to vehicular and which are directly inserted into • vehicle's hot water automotive heaters; and more particularly, to improved 10 circuit. Additionally, automatic on/off switching de- energy laving auxiliary fluid circulating systems which vices and thermostatic controls have been devised to can b* selectively used when the vehicle's engine is improve the operation and effectiveness of the type of turned oft auxiliary heating system as set forth, for example, in In the area of vehicular heating systems, it is benefi- ij.S. PlL No. 2,230,051. cial to selectively circulate the engine's "cooling" fluid. 1J There are basic problems inherent in the presently even while the vehicle's engine is not running. For available auxiliary hot water systems for providing hot example, the user of the vehicle then utilizes the vehi- wtter (-^^1,^0,, through the automobile heater, even cle's heater, while the vehicle's engine itself is shut off wni]e ,ne engjne ;, not ^ing operated. The hot water by circulating heated fluid through its "eater. Many system of most present day vehicles is pressuriied. The benefits accrue to the user of such a system who does 20 ^ pre$$ures lccentuate the necessity of preventing not have to run the vehicle's engine to obtain heat from \ea]Ul&e> especially around the shaft of the auxiliary the vehicle's heater in cooler weather pump ^^ -m Ae tluuliiry circulating systems. Wiih conventional automotive heater systems, for Solving the leakage problems by increasing, the pack- example, the user must keep the engine idling to keep . ^^ ^ jhift m lccentuate$ ^o^ M. the vehicle's heater functional, whether he isdnvmg or 23

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